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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark one)
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from ______________ to _______________
Commission File Number 001-35272
MIDLAND STATES BANCORP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Illinois
37-1233196
(State of other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1201 Network Centre Drive
62401
Effingham, IL
(Zip Code)
(Address of principal executive offices)
(217) 342-7321
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueMSBI
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Depositary Shares, each representing a 1/40th interest in a share of 7.75% fixed rate reset non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock, Series AMSBIP
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes  No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  No
The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2023 was $417,808,861 (based on the closing price on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on that date of $19.91).
As of February 13, 2024, the Registrant had 21,503,989 shares of outstanding common stock, $0.01 par value.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held May 6, 2024, to be filed within 120 days after December 31, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent indicated in such part.


Table of Contents
MIDLAND STATES BANCORP, INC.
2023 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.
1

Table of Contents

GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
As used in this report, references to the "Company," "we," "our," "us," and similar terms refer to the consolidated entity consisting of Midland States Bancorp, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Midland States Bancorp refers solely to the parent holding company and Midland States Bank (the "Bank") refers to our wholly owned banking subsidiary.
The acronyms and abbreviations identified below are used throughout this report, including the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. You may find it helpful to refer to this page as you read this report.
2019 Incentive PlanThe Amended and Restated Midland States Bancorp, Inc. 2019 Long-Term Incentive Plan
ACLAllowance for credit losses on loans
ASUAccounting Standards Update
ATG TrustATG Trust Company
BaaSBanking-as-a-Service
Basel III RuleBasel III regulatory capital reforms required by the Dodd-Frank Act
BHCABank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended
CBLRCommunity Bank Leverage Ratio
CFPBConsumer Financial Protection Bureau 
CISACybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency
COVIDCoronavirus Disease
CRACommunity Reinvestment Act
CRA ProposalJoint Proposal to Strengthen and Modernize Community Reinvestment Act Regulations 
CRECommercial Real Estate
CRE GuidanceConcentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices guidance
DFPRIllinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation
DIFDeposit Insurance Fund
EADExposure at default
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board 
FDICFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal ReserveBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
FHAFederal Housing Administration
FHLBFederal Home Loan Bank
FinTechFinancial Technology
FNBCFNBC Bank & Trust
FRBFederal Reserve Bank
GAAPU.S. generally accepted accounting principles 
Ginnie MaeGovernment National Mortgage Association
GreenskyGreenSky, LLC
Illinois CRAIllinois Community Reinvestment Act 
LGDLoss given default
LIBORLondon Inter-Bank Offered Rate
Midland TrustMidland States Preferred Securities Trust
NasdaqNasdaq Global Select Market
NII at RiskNet Interest Income at Risk 
OREOOther real estate owned
PCAOBPublic Company Accounting Oversight Board
PCDPurchased credit deteriorated
PDProbability of default
PPPPaycheck Protection Program
Q-FactorQualitative factor
Regulatory Relief ActEconomic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act
SBASmall Business Administration
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
TreasuryU.S. Department of the Treasury
TDRTroubled debt restructuring
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Safe Harbor Statement Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of, and are intended to be covered by the safe harbor provisions of, the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “might,” “should,” “could,” “predict,” “potential,” “believe,” “expect,” “continue,” “will,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “projection,” “goal,” “target,” “outlook,” “aim,” and “would” or the negative version of those words or other comparable words or phrases of a future or forward-looking nature. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions, estimates and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
A number of important factors could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including those factors identified in Item 1A – "Risk Factors” or Item 7 – "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” or the following:
business, economic and political conditions, particularly those affecting the financial services industry and our primary market areas;
the effects of interest rates, including on our net interest income and the value of our securities portfolio as well as monetary and fiscal policies of the U.S. government, including policies of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve;
factors that can impact the performance of our loan portfolio, including real estate values and liquidity in our primary market areas, the financial health of our commercial borrowers and the success of construction projects that we finance, including any loans acquired in acquisition transactions;
our ability to successfully manage our credit risk and the sufficiency of our allowance for credit losses on loans;
the failure of assumptions and estimates underlying the establishment of our allowances for credit losses on loans, and estimation of values of collateral and various financial assets and liabilities;
compliance with governmental and regulatory requirements, particularly those relating to banking, consumer protection, securities and tax matters, and our ability to maintain licenses required in connection with commercial mortgage servicing operations;
legislative and regulatory changes, including changes in banking, consumer protection, securities, trade and tax laws and regulations and their application by our regulators;
our dependence upon third parties for certain information system, data management and processing services, and to provide key components of our business infrastructure;
our ability to identify and address cyber-security risks, fraud and systems errors;
our ability to effectively execute our strategic plan and manage our growth;
the effects of competition from a wide variety of local, regional, national and other providers of financial, investment and insurance services, including FinTech companies and private credit funds, and demand for financial services in our market areas;
the effects of COVID pandemic and its potential effects on the economic environment, our customers and our operations, as well as any changes to the federal, state or local government laws, regulations or orders in connection with the pandemic;
risks related to our acquisition strategy, including our ability to identify suitable acquisition candidates, our ability to receive required regulatory approvals, exposure to potential asset and credit quality risks and unknown or contingent liabilities, the time and costs of integrating systems, procedures and personnel, the need for capital to finance such transactions, and possible failures in realizing the anticipated benefits from acquisitions;
the effects of the accounting treatment for loans acquired in connection with our acquisitions;
changes in our senior management team and our ability to attract, motivate and retain qualified personnel;
liquidity issues, including fluctuations in the fair value and liquidity of the securities we hold for sale and our ability to raise additional capital, if necessary;
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changes in federal tax law or policy;
the quality and composition of our loan and investment portfolios and the valuation of our investment portfolio;
demand for loan products and deposit flows;
the costs, effects and outcomes of existing or future litigation;
changes in accounting principles, policies and guidelines; and
the effects of severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, widespread disease or pandemics, and other external events.
The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this report. In addition, our past results of operations are not necessarily indicative of our future results. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
PART I
ITEM 1 – BUSINESS
Our Company
Midland States Bancorp, Inc., an Illinois corporation formed in 1988, is a diversified financial holding company headquartered in Effingham, Illinois. Our banking subsidiary, Midland States Bank, an Illinois state-chartered bank formed in 1881, has branches across Illinois and in Missouri, and provides a full range of commercial and consumer banking products and services, business equipment financing, merchant credit card services, trust and investment management, and insurance and financial planning services. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had total assets of $7.87 billion, and our wealth management group had assets under administration of approximately $3.73 billion.
Our strategic plan is focused on building a performance-based, customer-centric culture, creating revenue diversification, seeking accretive acquisitions, achieving operational excellence and maintaining a robust enterprise-wide risk management program. Over the past several years, we have grown organically and through a series of acquisitions, with an over-arching focus on enhancing shareholder value and building a platform for scalability. Most recently, in June 2022, the Company completed its branch acquisition from FNBC, whereby we acquired $79.8 million of deposits and $16.6 million of loans as well as other assets and liabilities associated with FNBC's branches in Mokena and Yorkville, Illinois. In June 2021, the Company completed its acquisition of substantially all of the trust assets of ATG Trust, a trust company based in Chicago, Illinois. Additional information on recent acquisitions is presented in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Our Principal Businesses
Traditional Community Banking. Our traditional community banking business primarily consists of commercial and retail lending and deposit taking. We deliver a comprehensive range of banking products and services to individuals, businesses, municipalities and other entities within our market areas, which include Illinois and the St. Louis metropolitan area, where we operated 53 full-service banking offices as of December 31, 2023.
Our lending strategy is to maintain a broadly diversified loan portfolio based on the type of customer (i.e., businesses versus individuals), type of loan product (e.g., owner occupied commercial real estate, commercial loans, agricultural loans, etc.), geographic location and industries in which our business customers are engaged (e.g., manufacturing, retail, hospitality, etc.). We principally focus our commercial lending activities on loans that we originate from borrowers located in our market areas.
We market our lending products and services to qualified lending customers primarily through branch offices and high touch personal service. We focus our business development and marketing strategy primarily on middle market businesses. Our primary products and services include the following:
Commercial Loans. Our commercial loan portfolio is comprised primarily of term loans to purchase capital equipment and lines of credit for working capital and operational purposes to small and midsized businesses. Although most loans are made on a secured basis, loans may be made on an unsecured basis where warranted by the overall financial condition of the borrower. Part of our commercial loan portfolio includes loans extended to finance agricultural equipment and production.
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These loans are typically short-term loans extended to farmers and other agricultural producers to purchase seed, fertilizer and equipment.
Commercial Real Estate Loans. We offer real estate loans for owner occupied and non-owner occupied commercial property. The real estate securing our existing commercial real estate loans includes a wide variety of property types, such as owner occupied offices, warehouses and production facilities, office buildings, hotels, mixed-use residential and commercial facilities, retail centers, multifamily properties and assisted living facilities. Our commercial real estate loan portfolio includes farmland loans. Farmland loans are generally made to a borrower actively involved in farming rather than to passive investors.
Construction and Land Development Loans. Our construction portfolio includes loans to small and midsized businesses to construct owner-user properties, loans to developers of commercial real estate investment properties and residential developments and, to a lesser extent, loans to individual clients for construction of single family homes in our market areas. These loans are typically disbursed as construction progresses and carry interest rates that may vary with LIBOR or a successor index.
The following table presents the balance and associated percentage of the major property types within our commercial real estate and construction and land development loan portfolios at December 31, 2023 and 2022:
December 31,
20232022
(dollars in thousands)Balance%Balance%
Multi-Family$516,295 18.1 %$395,164 14.3 %
Skilled Nursing469,096 16.4 485,456 17.6 
Retail454,589 15.9 452,806 16.4 
Industrial/Warehouse217,956 7.6 228,177 8.3 
Hotel/Motel159,707 5.6 164,597 6.0 
Office153,756 5.4 155,703 5.7 
All other888,039 31.0 872,138 31.7 
Total commercial real estate and construction and land development loans$2,859,438 100.0 %$2,754,041 100.0 %
Residential Real Estate Loans. We offer first and second mortgage loans to our individual customers primarily for the purchase of primary residences. We also offer home equity lines of credit, consisting of loans secured by first or second mortgages on primarily owner occupied primary residences.
Consumer Installment Loans. We provide consumer installment loans for the purchase of cars, boats and other recreational vehicles, as well as for the purchase of major appliances and other home improvement projects. Our major appliance and other home improvement lending is originated principally through national and regional retailers and other vendors of these products and services. We have historically originated these loans through GreenSky and LendingPoint. However, during the fourth quarter of 2023, the Company ceased originating consumer loans through both GreenSky and LendingPoint.
Commercial Equipment Leasing. We originate and manage custom leasing and financing programs for commercial customers on a nationwide basis. The industries we service include manufacturing, construction, transportation and healthcare. The financings generated are typically retained and serviced by the Bank, and are generally leases between $50,000 and $500,000, but can be larger in certain circumstances.
Deposit Taking. We offer traditional depository products, including checking, savings, money market and certificates of deposits, to individuals, businesses, municipalities and other entities throughout our market areas. We also offer sweep accounts to our business customers. Deposits at the Bank are insured by the FDIC up to statutory limits. We also offer sweep accounts that are guaranteed through repurchase agreements to our business and municipal customers. Our ability to gather deposits, particularly core deposits, is an important aspect of our business franchise.
Wealth Management. Our wealth management group operates under the name Midland Wealth Management and provides a comprehensive suite of trust and wealth management products and services, including financial and estate planning, trustee and custodial services, investment management, tax and insurance planning, business planning, corporate retirement plan consulting and administration and retail brokerage services through a nationally recognized third party broker dealer.
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FHA Servicing. Prior to August 28, 2020, we provided multifamily and healthcare facility FHA financing through Love Funding Corporation, our non-bank subsidiary. Love Funding Corporation originated commercial mortgage loans under FHA insurance programs, and sold those loans into the secondary market through mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by Ginnie Mae. On August 28, 2020, the Company completed the sale of Love Funding Corporation's commercial FHA origination platform to Dwight Capital, a nationwide mortgage banking firm headquartered in New York. The transaction was part of the Company’s ongoing effort to enhance efficiency. At December 31, 2023, we continued to service approximately $2.08 billion of originated commercial FHA loans.
Competition
We compete in a number of areas, including commercial and retail banking, residential mortgages, wealth management and commercial equipment leasing. These industries are highly competitive, and the Bank and its subsidiaries face strong direct competition for deposits, loans and leases, wealth management, and other financial-related services. We compete primarily with other community banks, thrifts and credit unions. In addition, we compete with large banks and other financial intermediaries, such as consumer finance companies, private credit funds, brokerage firms, mortgage banking companies, business leasing and finance companies, insurance companies, securities firms, mutual funds and certain government agencies as well as major retailers, all actively engaged in providing various types of loans and other financial services. Additionally, we face growing competition from so-called "online businesses" with few or no physical locations, including online banks, lenders and consumer and commercial lending platforms, and FinTech companies, as well as automated retirement and investment service providers. We believe that the range and quality of products that we offer, the knowledge of our personnel and our emphasis on building long-lasting relationships set us apart from our competitors.
The following table reflects information on the markets we currently serve, as of June 30, 2023, the most recent date for which such information was publicly available:
(dollars in thousands)June 30, 2023December 31, 2023
CountyStateDepositsMarket Share# of Banking Offices
St. CharlesMO$1,101,973 11.16 %2
WinnebagoIL906,627 12.52 7
EffinghamIL1,123,95741.51 1
KankakeeIL770,93530.76 8
LaSalleIL354,2569.93 4
St. LouisMO286,1740.64 6
WillIL313,5531.55 4
LeeIL232,26227.94 1
BooneIL222,59528.07 2
WhitesideIL246,10812.49 2
BureauIL168,07013.76 1
KendallIL127,3655.18 2
GrundyIL95,6425.97 1
MarionIL83,9347.66 1
MonroeIL82,7847.31 2
ChampaignIL51,3710.73 1
FayetteIL45,6338.48 2
JeffersonMO43,7131.21 1
St. Louis (City)MO33,079 0.06 1
St. ClairIL51,0070.93 1
FranklinMO34,3370.97 1
BondIL32,8737.63 1
LivingstonIL24,037 1.77 1
Human Capital Resources
At December 31, 2023, we had 914 employees, including 36 part-time employees. Our employees are not represented by any collective bargaining group. Management considers its employee relations to be good. We believe our ability to attract and retain employees is a key to our success. Accordingly, we strive to offer competitive salaries and employee benefits to all employees and monitor salaries in our market areas.
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In addition, we are committed to developing our staff through continuing and specialty education within banking. In this regard, we have developed and provided all employees with access to our Midland University training program. This program was developed to provide continuing education required or advisable regarding regulatory matters (such as anti-money laundering, bank secrecy, etc.) as well as other matters important to our organization and culture (e.g., social inclusion, diversity and non-discrimination, etc.). Additionally, our Midland University program provides for continuing education in areas specifically related to our banking and financial services business.
Leadership and professional development is also supported through our MASTERS high-potentials program as well as Midland WOMEN and African American affinity groups. Our MASTERS programs, Midland’s Advanced Study for Talent Enrichment and Resource Strengthening, were created to accelerate the career development of employees exhibiting the growth potential and qualities necessary to ensure the continued success of our Company. A total of 110 employees have participated in this high potential training program since its inception in 2016. Midland WOMEN is an affinity group that focuses on leadership development of women throughout all levels of the organization. Midland WOMEN currently has more than 39 employees participating on various activity committees and offers programs that engage hundreds of Midland employees annually. The African American Affinity Group focuses on personal and professional development and advancement initiatives for African American and Black employees. There are currently 3 employees participating on the activity committee and 29 regularly active members of the African American affinity group.
Corporate Information
Through our website at www.midlandsb.com under “Investors - SEC Filings,” we make available, free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as well as proxy statements, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference into this report.
Supervision and Regulation
General
FDIC-insured institutions, their holding companies and their affiliates are extensively regulated under federal and state law. As a result, the Company’s growth and earnings performance may be affected not only by management decisions and general economic conditions, but also by the requirements of federal and state statutes and by the regulations and policies of various bank regulatory agencies, including the DFPR, the Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the CFPB. Furthermore, taxation laws administered by the Internal Revenue Service and state taxing authorities, accounting rules developed by the FASB, securities laws administered by the SEC and state securities authorities, and anti-money laundering laws enforced by the Treasury have an impact on the Company’s business. The effect of these statutes, regulations, regulatory policies and accounting rules are significant to the Company’s operations and results.
Federal and state banking laws impose a comprehensive system of supervision, regulation and enforcement on the operations of FDIC-insured institutions, their holding companies and affiliates that is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC-insured deposits and depositors of banks, rather than shareholders. These laws, and the regulations of the bank regulatory agencies issued under them, affect, among other things, the scope of the Company’s business, the kinds and amounts of investments the Company and the Bank may make, required capital levels relative to assets, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, the establishment of branches, the ability to merge, consolidate and acquire, dealings with the Company’s and the Bank’s insiders and affiliates and the Company’s payment of dividends. In reaction to the global financial crisis and particularly following the passage of the Dodd Frank Act, the Company experienced heightened regulatory requirements and scrutiny. Although the reforms primarily targeted systemically important financial service providers, their influence filtered down in varying degrees to community banks over time and caused the Company’s compliance and risk management processes, and the costs thereof, to increase. However, in May 2018, the Regulatory Relief Act was enacted by Congress in part to provide regulatory relief for community banks and their holding companies. To that end, the law eliminated questions about the applicability of certain Dodd-Frank Act reforms to community bank systems, including relieving the Company of any requirement to engage in mandatory stress tests, maintain a risk committee or comply with the Volcker Rule’s complicated prohibitions on proprietary trading and ownership of private funds. The Company believes these reforms are favorable to its operations.
The supervisory framework for U.S. banking organizations subjects banks and bank holding companies to regular examination by their respective regulatory agencies, which results in examination reports and ratings that are not publicly available and that can impact the conduct and growth of their business. These examinations consider not only compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but also capital levels, asset quality and risk, management ability and performance, earnings,
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liquidity, and various other factors. The regulatory agencies generally have broad discretion to impose restrictions and limitations on the operations of a regulated entity where the agencies determine, among other things, that such operations are unsafe or unsound, fail to comply with applicable law or are otherwise inconsistent with laws and regulations.
The following is a summary of the material elements of the supervisory and regulatory framework applicable to the Company and its subsidiary bank. It does not describe all of the statutes, regulations and regulatory policies that apply, nor does it restate all of the requirements of those that are described. The descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provision.
The Role of Capital
Regulatory capital represents the net assets of a banking organization available to absorb losses. Because of the risks attendant to their business, FDIC-insured institutions are generally required to hold more capital than other businesses, which directly affects the Company’s earnings capabilities. While capital has historically been one of the key measures of the financial health of both bank holding companies and banks, its role became fundamentally more important in the wake of the global financial crisis, as the banking regulators recognized that the amount and quality of capital held by banks prior to the crisis was insufficient to absorb losses during periods of severe stress. Certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and Basel III, discussed below, establish capital standards for banks and bank holding companies that are meaningfully more stringent than those in place previously.
Minimum Required Capital Levels. Banks have been required to hold minimum levels of capital based on guidelines established by the bank regulatory agencies since 1983. The minimums have been expressed in terms of ratios of “capital” divided by “total assets”. As discussed below, bank capital measures have become more sophisticated over the years and have focused more on the quality of capital and the risk of assets. Bank holding companies have historically had to comply with less stringent capital standards than their bank subsidiaries and have been able to raise capital with hybrid instruments such as trust preferred securities. The Dodd-Frank Act mandated the Federal Reserve to establish minimum capital levels for holding companies on a consolidated basis as stringent as those required for FDIC-insured institutions. A result of this change is that the proceeds of hybrid instruments, such as trust preferred securities, were excluded from capital over a phase-out period. However, if such securities were issued prior to May 19, 2010 by bank holding companies with less than $15 billion of assets, they may be retained, subject to certain restrictions. Because the Company has assets of less than $15 billion, the Company is able to maintain its trust preferred proceeds as capital but the Company has to comply with new capital mandates in other respects and will not be able to raise capital in the future through the issuance of trust preferred securities.
The Basel International Capital Accords. The risk-based capital guidelines for U.S. banks since 1989 were based upon the 1988 capital accord known as “Basel I” adopted by the international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, a committee of central banks and bank supervisors that acts as the primary global standard-setter for prudential regulation, as implemented by the U.S. bank regulatory agencies on an interagency basis. The accord recognized that bank assets for the purpose of the capital ratio calculations needed to be assigned risk weights (the theory being that riskier assets should require more capital) and that off-balance sheet exposures needed to be factored in the calculations. Basel I had a very simple formula for assigning risk weights to bank assets from 0% to 100% based on four categories. In 2008, the banking agencies collaboratively began to phase-in capital standards based on a second capital accord, referred to as “Basel II,” for large or “core” international banks (generally defined for U.S. purposes as having total assets of $250 billion or more, or consolidated foreign exposures of $10 billion or more) known as “advanced approaches” banks. The primary focus of Basel II was on the calculation of risk weights based on complex models developed by each advanced approaches bank. Because most banks were not subject to Basel II, the U.S. bank regulators worked to improve the risk sensitivity of Basel I standards without imposing the complexities of Basel II. This “standardized approach” increased the number of risk-weight categories and recognized risks well above the original 100% risk weight. It is institutionalized by the Dodd-Frank Act for all banking organizations, even for the advanced approaches banks, as a floor.
On September 12, 2010, the Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision, the oversight body of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, announced agreement on a strengthened set of capital requirements for banking organizations around the world, known as Basel III, to address deficiencies recognized in connection with the global financial crisis.
The Basel III Rule. In July 2013, the U.S. federal banking agencies approved the implementation of the Basel III regulatory capital reforms in pertinent part, and, at the same time, promulgated rules effecting certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. In contrast to capital requirements historically, which were in the form of guidelines, Basel III was released in the form of enforceable regulations by each of the regulatory agencies. The Basel III Rule is applicable to all banking organizations that are subject to minimum capital requirements, including federal and state banks and savings and loan
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associations, as well as to bank and savings and loan holding companies, other than “small bank holding companies” (generally holding companies with consolidated assets of less than $3 billion) and certain qualifying banking organizations that may elect a simplified framework (which the Company has not done.) Thus, the Company and the Bank are each currently subject to the Basel III Rule as described below.
The Basel III Rule increased the required quantity and quality of capital and, for nearly every class of assets, it requires a more complex, detailed and calibrated assessment of risk and calculation of risk-weight amounts.
Not only did the Basel III Rule increase most of the required minimum capital ratios in effect prior to January 1, 2015, but it introduced the concept of Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, which consists primarily of common stock, related surplus (net of Treasury stock), retained earnings, and Common Equity Tier 1 minority interests subject to certain regulatory adjustments. The Basel III Rule also changed the definition of capital by establishing more stringent criteria that instruments must meet to be considered Additional Tier 1 Capital (primarily non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock that meets certain requirements) and Tier 2 Capital (primarily other types of preferred stock and subordinated debt, subject to limitations). A number of instruments that qualified as Tier 1 Capital under Basel I do not qualify, or their qualifications changed. For example, noncumulative perpetual preferred stock, which qualified as simple Tier 1 Capital under Basel I, does not qualify as Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, but qualifies as Additional Tier 1 Capital. The Basel III Rule also constrained the inclusion of minority interests, mortgage-servicing assets, and deferred tax assets in capital and requires deductions from Common Equity Tier 1 Capital in the event that such assets exceed a certain percentage of a banking institution’s Common Equity Tier 1 Capital.
The Basel III Rule requires minimum capital ratios as follows:
A ratio of minimum Common Equity Tier 1 Capital equal to 4.5% of risk-weighted assets;
An increase in the minimum required amount of Tier 1 Capital from 4% to 6% of risk-weighted assets;
A continuation of the minimum required amount of Total Capital (Tier 1 plus Tier 2) at 8% of risk-weighted assets; and
A minimum leverage ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total quarterly average assets equal to 4% in all circumstances.
In addition, institutions that seek the freedom to make capital distributions (including for dividends and repurchases of stock) and pay discretionary bonuses to executive officers without restriction must also maintain 2.5% in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital attributable to a capital conservation buffer. The purpose of the conservation buffer is to ensure that banking institutions maintain a buffer of capital that can be used to absorb losses during periods of financial and economic stress. Factoring in the conservation buffer increases the minimum ratios depicted above to 7% for Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, 8.5% for Tier 1 Capital and 10.5% for Total Capital. The federal bank regulators released a joint statement in response to the COVID pandemic reminding the industry that capital and liquidity buffers were meant to give banks the means to support the economy in adverse situations, and that the agencies would support banks that use the buffers for that purpose if undertaken in a safe and sound manner.
Well-Capitalized Requirements. The ratios described above are minimum standards in order for banking organizations to be considered “adequately capitalized.” Bank regulatory agencies uniformly encourage banks to hold more capital and be “well-capitalized” and, to that end, federal law and regulations provide various incentives for banking organizations to maintain regulatory capital at levels in excess of minimum regulatory requirements. For example, a banking organization that is well-capitalized may: (i) qualify for exemptions from prior notice or application requirements otherwise applicable to certain types of activities; (ii) qualify for expedited processing of other required notices or applications; and (iii) accept, roll-over or renew brokered deposits. Higher capital levels could also be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of individual banking organizations. For example, the Federal Reserve’s capital guidelines contemplate that additional capital may be required to take adequate account of, among other things, interest rate risk, or the risks posed by concentrations of credit, nontraditional activities or securities trading activities. Further, any banking organization experiencing or anticipating significant growth would be expected to maintain capital ratios, including tangible capital positions (i.e., Tier 1 Capital less all intangible assets), well above the minimum levels.
Under the capital regulations of the Federal Reserve, in order to be well-capitalized, a banking organization must maintain:
A Common Equity Tier 1 Capital ratio to risk-weighted assets of 6.5% or more;
A ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total risk-weighted assets of 8% or more;
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A ratio of Total Capital to total risk-weighted assets of 10% or more; and
A leverage ratio of Tier 1 Capital to total adjusted average quarterly assets of 5% or greater.
It is possible under the Basel III Rule to be well-capitalized while remaining out of compliance with the capital conservation buffer discussed above.
As of December 31, 2023: (i) the Bank was not subject to a directive from the Federal Reserve to increase its capital; and (ii) the Bank was well-capitalized, as defined by Federal Reserve regulations. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had regulatory capital in excess of the Federal Reserve’s requirements and met the Basel III Rule requirements to be well-capitalized. The Company is also in compliance with the capital conservation buffer.
Prompt Corrective Action. The concept of an institution being “well-capitalized” is part of a regulatory enforcement regime that provides the federal banking regulators with broad power to take “prompt corrective action” to resolve the problems of institutions based on the capital level of each particular institution. The extent of the regulators’ powers depends on whether the institution in question is “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” or “critically undercapitalized,” in each case as defined by regulation. Depending upon the capital category to which an institution is assigned, the regulators’ corrective powers include: (i) requiring the institution to submit a capital restoration plan; (ii) limiting the institution’s asset growth and restricting its activities; (iii) requiring the institution to issue additional capital stock (including additional voting stock) or to sell itself; (iv) restricting transactions between the institution and its affiliates; (v) restricting the interest rate that the institution may pay on deposits; (vi) ordering a new election of directors of the institution; (vii) requiring that senior executive officers or directors be dismissed; (viii) prohibiting the institution from accepting deposits from correspondent banks; (ix) requiring the institution to divest certain subsidiaries; (x) prohibiting the payment of principal or interest on subordinated debt; and (xi) ultimately, appointing a receiver for the institution.
Community Bank Capital Simplification. Community banks have long raised concerns with bank regulators about the regulatory burden, complexity, and costs associated with certain provisions of the Basel III Rule. In response, Congress provided an “off-ramp” for institutions, like the Company, with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion. Section 201 of the Regulatory Relief Act instructed the federal banking regulators to establish a single CBLR of between 8% and 10%. Under the final rule, a community banking organization is eligible to elect the new framework if it has less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, limited amounts of certain assets and off-balance sheet exposures, and a CBLR greater than 9%. The bank regulatory agencies temporarily lowered the CBLR to 8% as a result of the COVID pandemic. Nevertheless, the Company has not currently determined to elect the CBLR, but it may elect the framework at any time.
Supervision and Regulation of the Company
General. The Company, as the sole shareholder of the Bank, is a bank holding company. As a bank holding company, the Company is registered with, and is subject to regulation supervision and enforcement by, the Federal Reserve under the BHCA. The Company is legally obligated to act as a source of financial strength to the Bank and to commit resources to support the Bank in circumstances where the Company might not otherwise do so. Under the BHCA, the Company is subject to periodic examination by the Federal Reserve. The Company is required to file with the Federal Reserve periodic reports of the Company’s operations and such additional information regarding the Company and its subsidiaries as the Federal Reserve may require.
Acquisitions, Activities and Financial Holding Company Election. The primary purpose of a bank holding company is to control and manage banks. The BHCA generally requires the prior approval of the Federal Reserve for any merger involving a bank holding company or any acquisition by a bank holding company of another bank or bank holding company. Subject to certain conditions (including deposit concentration limits established by the BHCA), the Federal Reserve may allow a bank holding company to acquire banks located in any state of the United States. In approving interstate acquisitions, the Federal Reserve is required to give effect to applicable state law limitations on the aggregate amount of deposits that may be held by the acquiring bank holding company and its FDIC-insured institution affiliates in the state in which the target bank is located (provided that those limits do not discriminate against out-of-state institutions or their holding companies) and state laws that require that the target bank have been in existence for a minimum period of time (not to exceed five years) before being acquired by an out-of-state bank holding company. Furthermore, in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, bank holding companies must be well-capitalized and well-managed in order to effect interstate mergers or acquisitions. For a discussion of the capital requirements, see “The Role of Capital” above.
The BHCA generally prohibits the Company from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of 5% or more of the voting shares of any company that is not a bank and from engaging in any business other than that of banking, managing and controlling banks or furnishing services to banks and their subsidiaries. This general prohibition is subject to a number of
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exceptions. The principal exception allows bank holding companies to engage in, and to own shares of companies engaged in, certain businesses found by the Federal Reserve prior to November 11, 1999 to be “so closely related to banking ... as to be a proper incident thereto.” This authority permits the Company to engage in a variety of banking-related businesses, including the ownership and operation of a savings association, or any entity engaged in consumer finance, equipment leasing, the operation of a computer service bureau (including software development) and mortgage banking and brokerage services. The BHCA does not place territorial restrictions on the domestic activities of nonbank subsidiaries of bank holding companies.
Additionally, bank holding companies that meet certain eligibility requirements prescribed by the BHCA and elect to operate as financial holding companies may engage in, or own shares in companies engaged in, a wider range of nonbanking activities, including securities and insurance underwriting and sales, merchant banking and any other activity that the Federal Reserve, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, determines by regulation or order is financial in nature or incidental to any such financial activity or that the Federal Reserve determines by order to be complementary to any such financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety or soundness of FDIC-insured institutions or the financial system generally. In 2006, the Company elected to operate as a financial holding company. In order to maintain its status as a financial holding company, the Company and the Bank must be well-capitalized, well-managed, and the Bank must have a least a satisfactory CRA rating. If the Federal Reserve determines that a financial holding company is not well-capitalized or well-managed, the Company has a period of time in which to achieve compliance, but during the period of noncompliance, the Federal Reserve may place any limitations on the Company that it believes to be appropriate. Furthermore, if the Federal Reserve determines that a financial holding company’s subsidiary bank has not received a satisfactory CRA rating, that company will not be able to commence any new financial activities or acquire a company that engages in such activities.
Change in Control. Federal law prohibits any person or company from acquiring “control” of an FDIC-insured depository institution or its holding company without prior notice to the appropriate federal bank regulator. “Control” is conclusively presumed to exist upon the acquisition of 25% or more of the outstanding voting securities of a bank or bank holding company, but may arise under certain circumstances between 10% and 24.99% ownership.
Capital Requirements. Bank holding companies are required to maintain capital in accordance with Federal Reserve capital adequacy requirements. For a discussion of capital requirements, see “The Role of Capital” above.
Dividend Payments. The Company’s ability to pay dividends to the Company’s shareholders may be affected by both general corporate law considerations and policies of the Federal Reserve applicable to bank holding companies. As an Illinois corporation, the Company is subject to the limitations of the Illinois Business Corporations Act, as amended, which allows us to pay dividends unless, after such dividend, (i) the Company would not be able to pay its debts as they become due in the usual course of business or (ii) the Company’s total assets would be less than the sum of the Company’s total liabilities plus any amount that would be needed if it were to be dissolved at the time of the dividend payment, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of shareholders whose rights are superior to the rights of the shareholders receiving the distribution.
As a general matter, the Federal Reserve has indicated that the board of directors of a bank holding company should eliminate, defer or significantly reduce dividends to shareholders if: (i) the company’s net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends; (ii) the prospective rate of earnings retention is inconsistent with the company’s capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition; or (iii) the company will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios. These factors have come into consideration as a result of the COVID pandemic. The Federal Reserve also possesses enforcement powers over bank holding companies and their non-bank subsidiaries to prevent or remedy actions that represent unsafe or unsound practices or violations of applicable statutes and regulations. Among these powers is the ability to proscribe the payment of dividends by banks and bank holding companies. In addition, under the Basel III Rule, institutions that seek the freedom to pay dividends have to maintain 2.5% in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital attributable to the capital conservation buffer. See “The Role of Capital” above.
Incentive Compensation. There have been a number of developments in recent years focused on incentive compensation plans sponsored by bank holding companies and banks, reflecting recognition by the bank regulatory agencies and Congress that flawed incentive compensation practices in the financial industry were one of many factors contributing to the global financial crisis. Layered on top of that are the abuses in the headlines dealing with product cross-selling incentive plans. The result is interagency guidance on sound incentive compensation practices.
The interagency guidance recognized three core principles. Effective incentive plans should: (i) provide employees incentives that appropriately balance risk and reward; (ii) be compatible with effective controls and risk-management; and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the organization’s board of directors. Much of the guidance addresses large banking organizations and, because of the size and complexity of their operations, the
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regulators expect those organizations to maintain systematic and formalized policies, procedures, and systems for ensuring that the incentive compensation arrangements for all executive and non-executive employees covered by this guidance are identified and reviewed, and appropriately balance risks and rewards. Smaller banking organizations like the Company that use incentive compensation arrangements are expected to be less extensive, formalized, and detailed than those of the larger banks. 
Monetary Policy. The monetary policy of the Federal Reserve has a significant effect on the operating results of financial or bank holding companies and their subsidiaries. Among the tools available to the Federal Reserve to affect the money supply are open market transactions in U.S. government securities, changes in the discount rate on bank borrowings and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. These means are used in varying combinations to influence overall growth and distribution of bank loans, investments and deposits, and their use may affect interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits.
Federal Securities Regulation. The Company’s common stock is registered with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Exchange Act. Consequently, the Company is subject to the information, proxy solicitation, insider trading and other restrictions and requirements of the SEC under the Exchange Act.
Corporate Governance. The Dodd-Frank Act addressed many investor protection, corporate governance and executive compensation matters that will affect most U.S. publicly traded companies. The Dodd Frank Act increased shareholder influence over boards of directors by requiring companies to give shareholders a nonbinding vote on executive compensation and so-called “golden parachute” payments, and authorizing the SEC to promulgate rules that would allow shareholders to nominate and solicit voters for their own candidates using a company’s proxy materials. The legislation also directed the Federal Reserve to promulgate rules prohibiting excessive compensation paid to executives of bank holding companies, regardless of whether such companies are publicly traded.
Supervision and Regulation of the Bank
General. The Bank is an Illinois-chartered bank. The deposit accounts of the Bank are insured by the FDIC’s DIF to the maximum extent provided under federal law and FDIC regulations, currently $250,000 per insured depositor category. As an Illinois-chartered FDIC-insured bank, the Bank is subject to the examination, supervision, reporting and enforcement requirements of the DFPR, the chartering authority for Illinois banks, and, as a member bank, the Federal Reserve.
Deposit Insurance. As an FDIC-insured institution, the Bank is required to pay deposit insurance premium assessments to the FDIC. The FDIC has adopted a risk-based assessment system whereby FDIC-insured institutions pay insurance premiums at rates based on their risk classification. For institutions like the Bank that are not considered large and highly complex banking organizations, assessments are now based on examination ratings and financial ratios. The total base assessment rates currently range from 2.5 basis points to 32 basis points. At least semi-annually, the FDIC updates its loss and income projections for the DIF and, if needed, increases or decreases the assessment rates, following notice and comment on proposed rulemaking. The assessment base against which an FDIC-insured institution’s deposit insurance premiums paid to the DIF has been calculated since effectiveness of the Dodd-Frank Act based on its average consolidated total assets less its average tangible equity. This method shifted the burden of deposit insurance premiums toward those large depository institutions that rely on funding sources other than U.S. deposits.
For this purpose, the reserve ratio is the DIF balance divided by estimated insured deposits. In response to the global financial crisis, the Dodd-Frank Act increased the minimum reserve ratio from 1.15% to 1.35% of the estimated amount of total insured deposits. In the semiannual update in June 2022, the FDIC projected that the reserve ratio was at risk of not reaching the statutory minimum of 1.35% by September 30, 2028, the statutory deadline. Based on this update, the FDIC approved an increase in initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules by two basis points, applicable to all insured depository institutions. The increase was effective on January 1, 2023, applicable to the first quarterly assessment of the 2023 assessment (January 1 through March 31, 2023).
In addition, because the total cost of the failures of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank was approximately $16.3 billion, the FDIC adopted a special assessment for banks having deposits above $5 billion, at an annual rate of 13.4 basis points beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2024 (January 1 through March 31, 2024) with an invoice payment date of June 28, 2024, and will continue to collect special assessments for an anticipated total of eight quarterly assessment periods. The base for the special assessment is equal to an insured depository institution’s estimated uninsured deposits for the December 31, 2022 reporting period, adjusted to exclude the first $5 billion in estimated uninsured deposits.
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Supervisory Assessments. All Illinois-chartered banks are required to pay supervisory assessments to the DFPR to fund the operations of that agency. The amount of the assessment is calculated on the basis of the Bank’s total assets. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Bank paid supervisory assessments to the DFPR totaling approximately $0.5 million.
Capital Requirements. Banks are generally required to maintain capital levels in excess of other businesses. For a discussion of capital requirements, see “The Role of Capital” above.
Liquidity Requirements. Liquidity is a measure of the ability and ease with which bank assets may be converted to cash to meet financial obligations, such as deposits or other funding sources. Banks are required to implement liquidity risk management frameworks that ensure they maintain sufficient liquidity, including a cushion of unencumbered, high quality liquid assets, to withstand a range of stress events. The level and speed of deposit outflows contributing to the failures of Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank and First Republic Bank in the first half of 2023 was unprecedented and contributed to acute liquidity and funding strain. These events have further underscored the importance of liquidity risk management and contingency funding planning by insured depository institutions like the Bank.
The primary roles of liquidity risk management are to: (i) prospectively assess the need for funds to meet financial obligations; and (ii) ensure the availability of cash or collateral to fulfill those needs at the appropriate time by coordinating the various sources of funds available to the institution under normal and stressed conditions. Because the global financial crisis was in part a liquidity crisis, Basel III includes a liquidity framework that requires the largest FDIC-insured institutions to measure their liquidity against specific liquidity tests. One test, referred to as the liquidity coverage ratio, or LCR, is designed to ensure that the banking entity has an adequate stock of unencumbered high-quality liquid assets that can be converted easily and immediately in private markets into cash to meet liquidity needs for a 30-calendar day liquidity stress scenario. The other test, known as the net stable funding ratio, or NSFR, is designed to promote more medium- and long-term funding of the assets and activities of FDIC-insured institutions over a one-year horizon. These tests provide an incentive for banks and holding companies to increase their holdings in Treasury securities and other sovereign debt as a component of assets, increase the use of long-term debt as a funding source and rely on stable funding like core deposits (in lieu of brokered deposits).
In addition to liquidity guidelines already in place, the federal bank regulatory agencies implemented the Basel III LCR in September 2014, which requires large financial firms to hold levels of liquid assets sufficient to protect against constraints on their funding during times of financial turmoil, and in 2016 proposed implementation of the NSFR. While these rules do not, and will not, apply to the Bank, it continues to review its liquidity risk management policies in light of developments.
Dividend Payments. The primary source of funds for the Company is dividends from the Bank. Under Illinois banking law, Illinois-chartered banks generally may pay dividends only out of undivided profits. The DFPR may restrict the declaration or payment of a dividend by an Illinois-chartered bank, such as the Bank. The payment of dividends by any FDIC-insured institution is affected by the requirement to maintain adequate capital pursuant to applicable capital adequacy guidelines and regulations, and an FDIC-insured institution generally is prohibited from paying any dividends if, following payment thereof, the institution would be undercapitalized. As described above, the Bank exceeded its capital requirements under applicable guidelines as of December 31, 2023. Notwithstanding the availability of funds for dividends, however, the Federal Reserve and the DFPR may prohibit the payment of dividends by the Bank if either or both determine such payment would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice. In addition, under the Basel III Rule, institutions that seek the freedom to pay dividends have to maintain 2.5% in Common Equity Tier 1 Capital attributable to the capital conservation buffer. See “The Role of Capital” above.
State Bank Investments and Activities. The Bank is permitted to make investments and engage in activities directly or through subsidiaries as authorized by Illinois law. However, under federal law and FDIC regulations, FDIC-insured state banks are prohibited, subject to certain exceptions, from making or retaining equity investments of a type, or in an amount, that are not permissible for a national bank. Federal law and FDIC regulations also prohibit FDIC-insured state banks and their subsidiaries, subject to certain exceptions, from engaging as principal in any activity that is not permitted for a national bank unless the bank meets, and continues to meet, its minimum regulatory capital requirements and the FDIC determines that the activity would not pose a significant risk to the DIF. These restrictions have not had, and are not currently expected to have, a material impact on the operations of the Bank.
Insider Transactions. The Bank is subject to certain restrictions imposed by federal law on “covered transactions” between the Bank and its “affiliates.” The Company is an affiliate of the Bank for purposes of these restrictions, and covered transactions subject to the restrictions include extensions of credit to the Company, investments in the stock or other securities of the Company and the acceptance of the stock or other securities of the Company as collateral for loans made by the Bank.
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The Dodd-Frank Act enhanced the requirements for certain transactions with affiliates, including an expansion of the definition of “covered transactions” and an increase in the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered transactions must be maintained.
Certain limitations and reporting requirements are also placed on extensions of credit by the Bank to its directors and officers, to directors and officers of the Company and its subsidiaries, to principal shareholders of the Company and to “related interests” of such directors, officers and principal shareholders. In addition, federal law and regulations may affect the terms upon which any person who is a director or officer of the Company or the Bank, or a principal shareholder of the Company, may obtain credit from banks with which the Bank maintains a correspondent relationship.
Safety and Soundness Standards/Risk Management. The federal banking agencies have adopted operational and managerial standards to promote the safety and soundness of FDIC-insured institutions. The standards apply to internal controls, information systems, internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, asset quality and earnings.
In general, the safety and soundness standards prescribe the goals to be achieved in each area, and each institution is responsible for establishing its own procedures to achieve those goals. While regulatory standards do not have the force of law, if an institution operates in an unsafe and unsound manner, the FDIC-insured institution’s primary federal regulator may require the institution to submit a plan for achieving and maintaining compliance. If an FDIC-insured institution fails to submit an acceptable compliance plan, or fails in any material respect to implement a compliance plan that has been accepted by its primary federal regulator, the regulator is required to issue an order directing the institution to cure the deficiency. Until the deficiency cited in the regulator’s order is cured, the regulator may restrict the FDIC-insured institution’s rate of growth, require the FDIC-insured institution to increase its capital, restrict the rates the institution pays on deposits or require the institution to take any action the regulator deems appropriate under the circumstances. Noncompliance with safety and soundness may also constitute grounds for other enforcement action by the federal bank regulatory agencies, including cease and desist orders and civil money penalty assessments.
During the past decade, the bank regulatory agencies have increasingly emphasized the importance of sound risk management processes and strong internal controls when evaluating the activities of the FDIC-insured institutions they supervise. Properly managing risks has been identified as critical to the conduct of safe and sound banking activities and has become even more important as new technologies, product innovation, and the size and speed of financial transactions have changed the nature of banking markets. The agencies have identified a spectrum of risks facing a banking institution including, but not limited to, credit, market, liquidity, operational, legal, and reputational risk. The key risk themes identified for 2023 are: (i) elevated operational risk as banks adapt to an evolving technology environment and persistent cybersecurity risks, (ii) the need for banks to prepare for a cyclical change in credit risk while credit performance is strong, (iii) elevated interest rate risk due to lower rates continuing to compress net interest margins, and (iv) strategic risks from non-depository financial institutions, use of innovative and evolving technology, and progressive data analysis capabilities. The Bank is expected to have active board and senior management oversight; adequate policies, procedures, and limits; adequate risk measurement, monitoring, and management information systems; and comprehensive internal controls.
Privacy and Cybersecurity. The Bank is subject to many U.S. federal and state laws and regulations governing requirements for maintaining policies and procedures to protect non-public confidential information of their customers. These laws require the Bank to periodically disclose its privacy policies and practices relating to sharing such information and permit consumers to opt out of their ability to share information with unaffiliated third parties under certain circumstances. They also impact the Bank’s ability to share certain information with affiliates and non-affiliates for marketing and/or non-marketing purposes, or to contact customers with marketing offers. In addition, the Bank is required to implement a comprehensive information security program that includes administrative, technical, and physical safeguards to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer records and information. These security and privacy policies and procedures, for the protection of personal and confidential information, are in effect across all businesses and geographic locations.
Branching Authority. Illinois banks, such as the Bank, have the authority under Illinois law to establish branches anywhere in the State of Illinois, subject to receipt of all required regulatory approvals. The establishment of new interstate branches has historically been permitted only in those states the laws of which expressly authorize such expansion. The Dodd-Frank Act permits well-capitalized and well-managed banks to establish new interstate branches or the acquisition of individual branches of a bank in another state (rather than the acquisition of an out-of-state bank in its entirety) without impediments. Federal law permits state and national banks to merge with banks in other states subject to: (i) regulatory approval; (ii) federal and state deposit concentration limits; and (iii) state law limitations requiring the merging bank to have been in existence for a minimum period of time (not to exceed five years) prior to the merger.
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Community Reinvestment Act Requirements. The CRA requires the Bank to have a continuing and affirmative obligation in a safe and sound manner to help meet the credit needs of the entire community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Federal regulators regularly assess the Bank’s record of meeting the credit needs of its communities. Applications for acquisitions would also be affected by the evaluation of the Bank’s effectiveness in meeting its CRA requirements.
On October 24, 2023, the bank regulatory agencies issued a final rule to strengthen and modernize the CRA regulations (the “CRA Rule”), portions of which become effective on April 1, 2024. The CRA Rule is designed to update how CRA activities qualify for consideration, where CRA activities are considered, and how CRA activities are evaluated. More specifically, the bank regulatory agencies described the goals of the CRA Rule as follows: (i) to expand access to credit, investment, and basic banking services in low and moderate income communities; (ii) to adapt to changes in the banking industry, including mobile and internet banking by modernizing assessment areas while maintaining a focus on branch based areas; (iii) to provide greater clarity, consistency, and transparency in the application of the regulations through the use of standardized metrics as part of CRA evaluation and clarifying eligible CRA activities focused on low and moderate income communities and underserved rural communities; (iv) to tailor CRA rules and data collection to bank size and business model; and (v) to maintain a unified approach among the regulators.
In 2022, the Bank, like all Illinois chartered banks, became subject to the state level CRA standards, following passage of the Illinois CRA. This means that, in addition to the federal CRA review, the Bank will be reviewed by the DFPR to assess the Bank’s record of meeting the credit needs of its communities. Like the potential impact under the federal CRA, applications for additional acquisitions or activities would be affected by the evaluation of the Bank’s effectiveness in meeting its Illinois CRA requirements.
Anti-Money Laundering. The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) is the common name for a series of laws and regulations enacted in the United States to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism. They are designed to deny terrorists and criminals the ability to obtain access to the U.S. financial system and has significant implications for FDIC-insured institutions, brokers, dealers and other businesses involved in the transfer of money. The so-called Anti-Money Laundering/Countering the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) regime under the BSA provides a foundation to promote financial transparency and deter and detect those who seek to misuse the U.S. financial system to launder criminal proceeds, financed terrorist acts or move funds for other illicit purposes
The laws require financial services companies to have policies and procedures with respect to measures designed to address: (i) customer identification programs; (ii) money laundering; (iii) terrorist financing; (iv) identifying and reporting suspicious activities and currency transactions; (v) currency crimes; and (vi) cooperation between FDIC-insured institutions and law enforcement authorities.
Concentrations in CRE. Concentration risk exists when FDIC-insured institutions deploy too many assets to any one industry or segment. A concentration in commercial real estate is one example of regulatory concern. The interagency CRE Guidance provides supervisory criteria, including the following numerical indicators, to assist bank examiners in identifying banks with potentially significant commercial real estate loan concentrations that may warrant greater supervisory scrutiny: (i) commercial real estate loans exceeding 300% of capital and increasing 50% or more in the preceding three years; or (ii) construction and land development loans exceeding 100% of capital. The CRE Guidance does not limit banks’ levels of commercial real estate lending activities, but rather guides institutions in developing risk management practices and levels of capital that are commensurate with the level and nature of their commercial real estate concentrations. On December 18, 2015, the federal banking agencies issued a statement to reinforce prudent risk-management practices related to CRE lending, having observed substantial growth in many CRE asset and lending markets, increased competitive pressures, rising CRE concentrations in banks, and an easing of CRE underwriting standards. The federal bank agencies reminded FDIC-insured institutions to maintain underwriting discipline and exercise prudent risk-management practices to identify, measure, monitor, and manage the risks arising from CRE lending. In addition, FDIC-insured institutions must maintain capital commensurate with the level and nature of their CRE concentration risk. As of December 31, 2023, the Bank did not exceed these guidelines.
Consumer Financial Services. The historical structure of federal consumer protection regulation applicable to all providers of consumer financial products and services changed significantly on July 21, 2011, when the CFPB commenced operations to supervise and enforce consumer protection laws. The CFPB has broad rule making authority for a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all providers of consumer products and services, including the Bank, as well as the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices. The CFPB has examination and enforcement authority over providers with more than $10 billion in assets. FDIC-insured institutions with $10 billion or less in assets, like the Bank, continue to be examined by their applicable bank regulators.
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Because abuses in connection with residential mortgages were a significant factor contributing to the financial crisis, many rules issued by the CFPB, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act, addressed mortgage and mortgage-related products, their underwriting, origination, servicing and sales. The Dodd-Frank Act significantly expanded underwriting requirements applicable to loans secured by 1-4 family residential real property and augmented federal law combating predatory lending practices. In addition to numerous disclosure requirements, the Dodd-Frank Act imposed new standards for mortgage loan originations on all lenders, including banks and savings associations, in an effort to strongly encourage lenders to verify a borrower’s ability to repay, while also establishing a presumption of compliance for certain “qualified mortgages.”
The CFPB’s rules have not had a significant impact on the Bank’s operations, except for higher compliance costs.

Regulation of Affiliates
The Company operates one affiliate that is regulated by functional financial regulatory agencies. Midland Wealth Advisors, LLC is a registered investment advisor. The SEC has supervisory, examination and enforcement authority over its operations. The SEC’s focus is primarily for the protection of investors under the federal securities laws.
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ITEM 1A – RISK FACTORS
The material risks that management believes affect the Company are described below. You should carefully consider the risks, together with all of the information included herein. The risks described below are not the only risks the Company faces. Additional risks not presently known or that the Company believes are immaterial also may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
Macroeconomic and Credit Risks
A decline in general business and economic conditions and any regulatory responses to such conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our business and operations are sensitive to business and economic conditions in the United States, generally, and particularly the state of Illinois and the St. Louis metropolitan area. If the national, regional and local economies experience worsening economic conditions, our growth and profitability could be harmed. Weak economic conditions are characterized by, among other indicators, elevated levels of unemployment, fluctuations in debt and equity capital markets, increased delinquencies on mortgage, commercial and consumer loans, residential and commercial real estate price declines, and lower home sales and commercial activity. All of these factors are generally detrimental to our business. Our business is significantly affected by monetary and other regulatory policies of the U.S. federal government, its agencies and government-sponsored entities. Changes in any of these policies are influenced by macroeconomic conditions and other factors that are beyond our control, are difficult to predict and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and growth prospects.
If we do not effectively manage our credit risk, we may experience increased levels of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies, which could require increases in our provision for credit losses on loans.
There are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers, risks of nonpayment, risks resulting from uncertainties as to the future value of collateral and cash flows available to service debt, and risks resulting from changes in economic and market conditions. We cannot guarantee that our credit underwriting and monitoring procedures will reduce these credit risks, and they cannot be expected to completely eliminate our credit risks. If the overall economic climate in the United States, generally, or our market areas, specifically, declines, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise and require further increases in the provision for credit losses on loans, which would cause our net income, return on equity and capital to decrease. We maintain our allowance for credit losses on loans at a level that management considers adequate to absorb expected credit losses on loans based on an analysis of our portfolio and market environment.
As of December 31, 2023, our allowance for credit losses on loans as a percentage of total loans was 1.12% and as a percentage of total nonperforming loans was 121.56%. Although management believed, as of such date, that the allowance for credit losses on loans was adequate to absorb losses on any existing loans that may become uncollectible, we may be required to take additional provisions for credit losses on loans in the future to further supplement the allowance for credit losses on loans, either due to management’s decision to do so or because our banking regulators require us to do so. Our bank regulatory agencies will periodically review our allowance for credit losses on loans and the value attributed to nonaccrual loans or to real estate acquired through foreclosure and may require us to adjust our determination of the value for these items. These adjustments may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real estate, the value and liquidity of which can be negatively affected by economic conditions and environmental issues.
At December 31, 2023, approximately 52.8% of our loan portfolio was comprised of loans with real estate as a primary or secondary component of collateral. As a result, adverse developments affecting real estate values in our market areas could increase the credit risk associated with our real estate loan portfolio. The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time as a result of interest rate levels and by market conditions in the area in which the real estate is located. Adverse changes affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses, which could result in losses that would adversely affect profitability. Such declines and losses would have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and growth prospects.
In addition, if hazardous or toxic substances are found on properties pledged as collateral, the value of the real estate could be impaired. If we foreclose on and take title to such properties, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for
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personal injury and property damage. Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses to address unknown liabilities and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property.
Many of our loans are to commercial borrowers, which have a higher degree of risk than other types of loans.
Commercial loans represented 70.8% of our total loan portfolio at December 31, 2023. Commercial loans are often larger and involve greater risks than other types of lending. Because payments on such loans often depend on the successful operation or development of the property or business involved, repayment of such loans is often more sensitive than other types of loans to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the general business climate and economy. Accordingly, a downturn in the real estate market and a challenging business and economic environment may increase our risk related to commercial loans, particularly commercial real estate loans. Unlike residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrower's ability to make repayment from their employment and other income and which are secured by real property, the value of which tends to be more easily ascertainable, commercial loans typically are made on the basis of the borrower's ability to make repayment from the cash flow of the commercial venture. Our operating commercial loans are primarily made based on the identified cash flow of the borrower and secondarily on the collateral underlying the loans. Most often, this collateral consists of accounts receivable, inventory and equipment. Inventory and equipment may depreciate over time, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value based on the success of the business. If the cash flow from business operations is reduced, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. Due to the larger average size of each commercial loan as compared with other loans such as residential loans, as well as collateral that is generally less readily-marketable, losses incurred on even a small number of commercial loans could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
The small to midsized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan, and such impairment could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We target our business development and marketing strategy primarily to serve the banking and financial services needs of small to midsized businesses. These businesses generally have fewer financial resources in terms of capital or borrowing capacity than larger entities, frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete and may experience substantial volatility in operating results, any of which may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small or midsized business often depends on the management talents and efforts of one or two people or a small group of people, and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these people could have a material adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay its loan. If general economic conditions negatively impact the markets in which we operate and small to midsized businesses are adversely affected or our borrowers are otherwise affected by adverse business developments, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Real estate construction loans are based upon estimates of costs and values associated with the complete project. These estimates may be inaccurate, and we may be exposed to significant losses on loans for these projects.
Real estate construction loans comprised approximately 7.4% of our total loan portfolio as of December 31, 2023, and such lending involves additional risks because funds are advanced upon the security of the project, which is of uncertain value prior to its completion, and costs may exceed realizable values in declining real estate markets. Because of the uncertainties inherent in estimating construction costs and the realizable market value of the completed project and the effects of governmental regulation of real property, it is relatively difficult to evaluate accurately the total funds required to complete a project and the related loan-to-value ratio. As a result, construction loans often involve the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment dependent, in part, on the success of the ultimate project and the ability of the borrower to sell or lease the property, rather than the ability of the borrower or guarantor to repay principal and interest. If our appraisal of the value of the completed project proves to be overstated or market values or rental rates decline, we may have inadequate security for the repayment of the loan upon completion of construction of the project. If we are forced to foreclose on a project prior to or at completion due to a default, we may not be able to recover all of the unpaid balance of, and accrued interest on, the loan as well as related foreclosure and holding costs. In addition, we may be required to fund additional amounts to complete the project and may have to hold the property for an unspecified period of time while we attempt to dispose of it.
Real estate market volatility and future changes in our disposition strategies could result in net proceeds that differ significantly from our other real estate owned fair value appraisals.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $9.1 million of other real estate owned. Our other real estate owned portfolio consists of properties that we obtained through foreclosure or through an in-substance foreclosure in satisfaction of loans. Properties in our other real estate owned portfolio are recorded at the lower of the recorded investment in the loans for which
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the properties previously served as collateral or the “fair value,” which represents the estimated sales price of the properties on the date acquired less estimated selling costs.
In response to market conditions and other economic factors, we may utilize alternative sale strategies other than orderly disposition, such as immediate liquidation sales. In this event, as a result of the significant judgments required in estimating fair value and the variables involved in different methods of disposition, the net proceeds realized from such sales transactions could differ significantly from appraisals, comparable sales and other estimates used to determine the fair value of our other real estate owned properties, potentially resulting in additional losses.
Nonperforming assets take significant time to resolve and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition, and could result in further losses in the future.
Our nonperforming assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. We do not record interest income on nonaccrual loans or other real estate owned, thereby adversely affecting our net income and returns on assets and equity, increasing our loan administration costs and adversely affecting our efficiency ratio. When we take collateral in foreclosure and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the collateral to its then-fair market value, which may result in a loss. These nonperforming loans and other real estate owned also increase our risk profile and the level of capital our regulators believe is appropriate for us to maintain in light of such risks. The resolution of nonperforming assets requires significant time commitments from management and can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities. If we experience increases in nonperforming loans and nonperforming assets, our net interest income may be negatively impacted and our loan administration costs could increase, each of which could have an adverse effect on our net income and related ratios, such as return on assets and equity.
Operational, Strategic and Reputational Risks
The occurrence of fraudulent activity, breaches or failures of our information security controls or cybersecurity-related incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
As a bank, we are susceptible to fraudulent activity, information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents that may be committed against us or our clients, which may result in financial losses or increased costs to us or our clients, disclosure or misuse of our information or our client information, misappropriation of assets, privacy breaches against our clients, litigation or damage to our reputation. Such fraudulent activity may take many forms, including check fraud, electronic fraud, wire fraud, phishing, social engineering and other dishonest acts. Information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents may include fraudulent or unauthorized access to systems used by us or our clients, denial or degradation of service attacks and malware or other cyber-attacks. See Item 1C - "Cybersecurity" appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
In recent periods, there continues to be a rise in electronic fraudulent activity, security breaches and cyber-attacks within the financial services industry, especially in the commercial banking sector due to cyber criminals targeting commercial bank accounts. Moreover, in recent periods, several large corporations, including financial institutions and retail companies, have suffered major data breaches, in some cases exposing not only confidential and proprietary corporate information, but also sensitive financial and other personal information of their customers and employees and subjecting them to potential fraudulent activity. Some of our clients may have been affected by these breaches, which could increase their risks of identity theft and other fraudulent activity that could involve their accounts with us.
Information pertaining to us and our clients is maintained, and transactions are executed, on networks and systems maintained by us and certain third party partners, such as our online banking, mobile banking or accounting systems. The secure maintenance and transmission of confidential information, as well as execution of transactions over these systems, are essential to protect us and our clients against fraud and security breaches and to maintain the confidence of our clients. Breaches of information security also may occur through intentional or unintentional acts by those having access to our systems or the confidential information of our clients, including employees. In addition, increases in criminal activity levels and sophistication, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries, vulnerabilities in third party technologies (including browsers and operating systems) or other developments could result in a compromise or breach of the technology, processes and controls that we use to prevent fraudulent transactions and to protect data about us, our clients and underlying transactions, as well as the technology used by our clients to access our systems. Our third party partners’ inability to anticipate, or failure to adequately mitigate, breaches of security could result in a number of negative events, including losses to us or our clients, loss of business or clients, damage to our reputation, the incurrence of additional expenses, disruption to our business, additional regulatory scrutiny or penalties or our exposure to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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We depend on information technology and telecommunications systems of third parties, and any systems failures, interruptions or data breaches involving these systems could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
Our business is highly dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems, third party servicers, accounting systems, mobile and online banking platforms and financial intermediaries. We outsource to third parties many of our major systems, such as data processing and mobile and online banking. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third party systems fail or experience interruptions. A system failure or service denial could result in a deterioration of our ability to process loans, gather deposits or provide customer service, compromise our ability to operate effectively, result in potential noncompliance with applicable laws or regulations, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business or subject us to regulatory action and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In addition, failures of third parties to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or fraud or misconduct on the part of employees of any of these third parties, could disrupt our operations or adversely affect our reputation.
It may be difficult for us to replace some of our third party vendors, particularly vendors providing our core banking and information services, in a timely manner if they are unwilling or unable to provide us with these services in the future for any reason, and even if we are able to replace them, it may be at higher cost or result in the loss of customers. Any such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our operations rely heavily on the secure processing, storage and transmission of information and the monitoring of a large number of transactions on a minute-by-minute basis, and even a short interruption in service could have significant consequences. We also interact with and rely on retailers, for whom we process transactions, as well as financial counterparties and regulators. Each of these third parties may be targets of the same types of fraudulent activity, computer break-ins and other cyber security breaches described above, and the cyber security measures that they maintain to mitigate the risk of such activity may be different than our own and may be inadequate.
As a result of financial entities and technology systems becoming more interdependent and complex, a cyber incident, information breach or loss, or technology failure that compromises the systems or data of one or more financial entities could have a material impact on counterparties or other market participants, including ourselves. As a result of the foregoing, our ability to conduct business may be adversely affected by any significant disruptions to us or to third parties with whom we interact.
We are subject to certain operational risks, including, but not limited to, customer or employee fraud and data processing system failures and errors.
Employee errors and employee and customer misconduct could subject us to financial losses or regulatory sanctions and seriously harm our reputation. Misconduct by our employees could include hiding unauthorized activities from us, improper or unauthorized activities on behalf of our customers or improper use of confidential information. It is not always possible to prevent employee errors and misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. Employee errors could also subject us to financial claims for negligence.
We maintain a system of internal controls and insurance coverage to mitigate against operational risks, including data processing system failures and errors and customer or employee fraud. If our internal controls fail to prevent or detect an occurrence, or if any resulting loss is not insured or exceeds applicable insurance limits, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID pandemic could continue to adversely affect the U.S. economy and our customers.
The COVID pandemic could continue to negatively impact the United States and world economy. In recent months, the pandemic and global responses have continued to disrupt large portions of the global economy, affecting rates of inflation, work and lifestyle patterns, the real estate market and other matters. These trends have, among other things, negatively impacted the fair value of our securities portfolio, loan demand, the value of collateral securing our loans, our growth strategy, and other matters.
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Our strategy of pursuing growth via acquisitions exposes us to financial, execution and operational risks that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our acquisition activities could require us to use a substantial amount of cash, or other liquid assets and/or incur debt. There are risks associated with an acquisition strategy, including the following:
We may incur time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisitions and negotiating potential transactions, resulting in management’s attention being diverted from the operation of our existing business.
We are exposed to potential asset and credit quality risks and unknown or contingent liabilities of the banks or businesses we acquire. If these issues or liabilities exceed our estimates, our earnings, capital and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.
The acquisition of other entities generally requires integration of systems, procedures and personnel of the acquired entity. This integration process is complicated and time consuming and can also be disruptive to the customers and employees of the acquired business and our business. If the integration process is not conducted successfully, we may not realize the anticipated economic benefits of acquisitions within the expected time frame, or ever, and we may lose customers or employees of the acquired business. We may also experience greater than anticipated customer losses even if the integration process is successful.
To finance an acquisition, we may borrow funds or pursue other forms of financing, such as issuing voting and/or non-voting common stock or preferred stock, which may have high dividend rights or may be highly dilutive to holders of our common stock, thereby increasing our leverage and diminishing our liquidity.
We may be unsuccessful in realizing the anticipated benefits from acquisitions. For example, we may not be successful in realizing anticipated cost savings. We also may not be successful in preventing disruptions in service to existing customer relationships of the acquired institution, which could lead to a loss in revenues.
In addition to the foregoing, we may face additional risks in acquisitions to the extent we acquire new lines of business or new products, or enter new geographic areas, in which we have little or no current experience, especially if we lose key employees of the acquired operations. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in overcoming these risks or any other problems encountered in connection with acquisitions. Our inability to overcome risks associated with acquisitions could have an adverse effect on our ability to successfully implement our acquisition growth strategy and grow our business and profitability.
We may not be able to continue growing our business, particularly if we cannot make acquisitions or increase loans through organic loan growth.
While we intend to continue to grow our business through strategic acquisitions coupled with organic loan growth, because certain of our market areas are comprised of mature, rural communities with limited population growth, we anticipate that much of our future growth will be dependent on our ability to successfully implement our acquisition growth strategy. A risk exists, however, that we will not be able to execute this strategy. Even if suitable targets are identified, we expect to compete for such businesses with other potential bidders, many of which may have greater financial resources than we have, which may adversely affect our ability to make acquisitions at attractive prices. Furthermore, many acquisitions we may wish to pursue would be subject to approvals by bank regulatory authorities, and we cannot predict whether any targeted acquisitions will receive the required regulatory approvals. In light of the foregoing, our ability to continue to grow successfully will depend to a significant extent on our capital resources and relationships with our regulators.
Our growth will also depend upon our ability to attract deposits and to identify favorable loan and investment opportunities and on whether we can continue to fund growth while maintaining cost controls and asset quality, as well on other factors beyond our control, such as national, regional and local economic conditions and interest rate trends.
We are highly dependent on our management team, and the loss of our senior executive officers or other key employees could harm our ability to implement our strategic plan, impair our relationships with customers and adversely affect our business, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our success is dependent, to a large degree, upon the continued service and skills of our existing executive management team, particularly Mr. Jeffrey G. Ludwig, our President and Chief Executive Officer, and Mr. Eric T. Lemke, our Chief Financial Officer.
Our business and growth strategies are built primarily upon our ability to retain employees with experience and business relationships within their respective market areas. The loss of Mr. Ludwig, Mr. Lemke or any of our other key personnel could have an adverse impact on our business and growth because of their skills, years of industry experience, knowledge of our market areas and the difficulty of finding qualified replacement personnel, particularly in light of the fact that
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we are not headquartered in a major metropolitan area. In addition, although we have non-competition agreements with each of our executive officers and with several others of our senior personnel, we do not have any such agreements with other employees who are important to our business, and in any event the enforceability of non-competition agreements varies across the states in which we do business. While our mortgage originators, loan officers and wealth management professionals are generally subject to non-solicitation provisions as part of their employment, our ability to enforce such agreements may not fully mitigate the injury to our business from the breach of such agreements, as such employees could leave us and immediately begin soliciting our customers. The departure of any of our personnel who are not subject to enforceable non-competition agreements could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and growth prospects.
The termination of our partnership with GreenSky could have an adverse effect on loan growth and profitability.
On January 24, 2023, we notified GreenSky that, effective October 21, 2023, we would terminate our participation in GreenSky’s consumer loan origination program. As the existing loans from our GreenSky portfolio pay off, we plan to reinvest the cash flows into either new loan originations or investment securities, or use the cash flows to pay off higher cost funding sources, which is expected to mitigate the impact of the loan payoffs on our earnings. Should the pace of payoffs in the GreenSky portfolio exceed a normalized level and we do not have sufficient opportunities to reinvest most of the cash flows into new loan originations, there could be an adverse impact on our overall loan growth and profitability during the period of time in which the GreenSky portfolio runs off.
We may be liable to purchasers of mortgage loans and mortgage servicing rights, including as a result of any breach of representations and warranties we make to the purchasers.
When we sell or securitize mortgage loans in the ordinary course of business, we are required to make certain representations and warranties to the purchaser about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated. Under these agreements, we may be required to repurchase mortgage loans if we have breached any of these representations or warranties, in which case we may record a loss. In addition, if repurchase and indemnity demands increase on loans that we sell from our portfolios, our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, we have sold residential mortgage servicing rights to third parties pursuant to customary purchase agreements, under which we could be required to indemnify the purchasers for losses resulting from pre-closing servicing errors or breaches of our representations and warranties, which could affect our results of operations.
Our ability to maintain our reputation is critical to the success of our business, and the failure to do so may materially adversely affect our business and the value of our stock.
We are a community bank, and our reputation is one of the most valuable components of our business. Similarly, each of our subsidiaries operate in niche markets where reputation is critically important. As such, we strive to conduct our business in a manner that enhances our reputation. This is done, in part, by recruiting, hiring and retaining employees who share our core values of being an integral part of the communities we serve, delivering superior service to our customers and caring about our customers and associates. If our reputation is negatively affected, by the actions of our employees or otherwise, our business and, therefore, our operating results and the value of our stock may be materially adversely affected.
We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to effectively implement new technology or we may experience operational challenges when implementing new technology.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services, such as those using artificial intelligence. In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. Our future success will depend in part upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations as we continue to grow and expand our market area. We may experience operational challenges as we implement these new technology enhancements, or seek to implement them across all of our offices and business units, which could result in us not fully realizing the anticipated benefits from such new technology or require us to incur significant costs to remedy any such challenges in a timely manner.
Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or superior products to those that we will be able to offer, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. Accordingly, a risk exists that we will not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing such products and services to our customers.
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We depend on the accuracy and completeness of information provided by customers and counterparties.
In deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished to us by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements and other financial information. We also may rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. In deciding whether to extend credit, we may rely upon our customers’ representations that their financial statements conform to GAAP and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the customer. We also may rely on customer representations and certifications, or other audit or accountants’ reports, with respect to the business and financial condition of our clients. Our financial condition, results of operations, financial reporting and reputation could be negatively affected if we rely on materially misleading, false, inaccurate or fraudulent information.
We face strong competition from financial services companies and other companies that offer banking, mortgage, leasing, and wealth management services, which could harm our business.
Our operations consist of offering banking and mortgage services, and we also offer trust, wealth management and leasing services to generate noninterest income. Many of our competitors offer the same, or a wider variety of, banking and related financial services within our market areas. These competitors include national banks, regional banks and other community banks. We also face competition from many other types of financial institutions, including savings and loan institutions, finance companies, private credit funds, brokerage firms, insurance companies, credit unions, mortgage banks and other financial intermediaries. In addition, a number of out-of-state financial intermediaries have opened production offices or otherwise solicit deposits in our market areas. Additionally, we face growing competition from so-called “online businesses” with few or no physical locations, including online banks, lenders and consumer and commercial lending platforms, and FinTech companies, as well as automated retirement and investment service providers. Increased competition in our markets may result in reduced loans, deposits and commissions and brokers’ fees, as well as reduced net interest margin and profitability. Ultimately, we may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors. If we are unable to attract and retain banking, mortgage, leasing and wealth management customers, we may be unable to continue to grow our business and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Consumers and businesses are increasingly using non-banks to complete their financial transactions, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Technology and other changes are allowing consumers and businesses to complete financial transactions that historically have involved banks through alternative methods. For example, the wide acceptance of internet-based commerce has resulted in a number of alternative payment processing systems and lending platforms in which banks play only minor roles. Customers can now maintain funds in prepaid debit cards or digital currencies, and pay bills and transfer funds directly without the direct assistance of banks. The diminishing role of banks as financial intermediaries has resulted and could continue to result in the loss of fee income, as well as the loss of customer deposits and the related income generated from those deposits. The loss of these revenue streams and the potential loss of lower cost deposits as a source of funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The development of our BaaS platform may expose us to liability for compliance violations by BaaS partners or fall short of its targeted impact on our financial performance.
During 2022, we invested in the development of a BaaS platform that will enable us to enter into partnerships with financial technology companies through which we will provide banking services to the customers of these companies. We believe that these partnerships will contribute to loan production, deposit gathering, and fee income generation in future years. We intend to be very selective in our approach to developing BaaS partnerships to ensure that any partners that are added meet our high standards for risk management. However, we are subject to compliance and regulatory risk if partners do not follow our servicing policies, lending laws, and regulations. Our bank regulators may hold us responsible for the activities of our BaaS partners with respect to the marketing or administration of their programs, which may result in increased compliance costs for us or potentially compliance violations as a result of BaaS partner activities. In addition, we may not find enough suitable partnerships for the BaaS platform to have a meaningful impact on our overall financial performance.
Legal, Accounting and Compliance Risks
If the goodwill that we recorded in connection with a business acquisition becomes impaired, it could require charges to earnings, which would have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Goodwill represents the amount by which the cost of an acquisition exceeded the fair value of net assets we acquired in connection with the purchase. We review goodwill for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset might be impaired.
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We determine impairment by comparing the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. Any such adjustments are reflected in our results of operations in the periods in which they become known. There can be no assurance that our future evaluations of goodwill will not result in findings of impairment and related write-downs, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risks and/or losses to us.
Our risk management framework is comprised of various processes, systems and strategies, and is designed to manage the types of risk to which we are subject, including, among others, credit, market, liquidity, interest rate and compliance. Our framework also includes financial or other modeling methodologies that involve management assumptions and judgment. Our risk management framework may not be effective under all circumstances or may not adequately mitigate risk or loss to us. If our framework is not effective, we could suffer unexpected losses and our business, financial condition, results of operations or growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. We may also be subject to potentially adverse regulatory consequences.
We are and may become involved from time to time in suits, legal proceedings, information-gathering requests, investigations and proceedings by governmental and self-regulatory agencies that may lead to adverse consequences.
Many aspects of our business and operations involve the risk of legal liability, and in some cases we or our subsidiaries have been named or threatened to be named as defendants in various lawsuits arising from our business activities. For example, some of the services we provide, such as wealth management services, require us to act as fiduciaries for our customers and others. From time to time, third parties make claims and take legal action against us pertaining to the performance of our fiduciary responsibilities. In addition, companies in our industry are frequently the subject of governmental and self-regulatory agency information-gathering requests, reviews, investigations and proceedings.
The results of such proceedings could lead to significant civil or criminal penalties, including monetary penalties, damages, adverse judgments, settlements, fines, injunctions, restrictions on the way in which we conduct our business, or reputational harm.
Although we establish accruals for legal proceedings when information related to the loss contingencies represented by those matters indicates both that a loss is probable and that the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated, we do not have accruals for all legal proceedings where we face a risk of loss. In addition, due to the inherent subjectivity of the assessments and unpredictability of the outcome of legal proceedings, amounts accrued may not represent the ultimate loss to us from the legal proceedings in question. Accordingly, our ultimate losses may be higher, and possibly significantly so, than the amounts accrued for legal loss contingencies, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Legislative and regulatory actions taken now or in the future may increase our costs and impact our business, governance structure, financial condition or results of operations.
Compliance with applicable bank regulations by us and our third party vendors has resulted, and may continue to result, in additional operating and compliance costs and restrictions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In addition, new proposals for legislation may continue to be introduced in the U.S. Congress that could further substantially change regulation of the bank and non-bank financial services industries and impose restrictions on the operations and general ability of firms within the industry to conduct business consistent with historical practices. Federal and state regulatory agencies also frequently adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. Legislation and regulations may be impacted by the political ideologies of the executive branches of the U.S. government as well as the heads of regulatory and administrative agencies, which may change as a result of elections. Certain aspects of current or proposed regulatory or legislative changes to laws applicable to the financial industry, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability of our business activities, require more oversight or change certain of our business practices, including the ability to offer new products, obtain financing, attract deposits, make loans and achieve satisfactory interest spreads and could expose us to additional costs, including increased compliance costs. These changes also may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to make any necessary changes to operations to comply and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We are subject to stringent capital requirements, and failure to comply with these requirements may impact dividend payments and limit our activities.
As a result of the implementation of the Basel III Rule, we are required to meet minimum capital requirements. The failure to meet applicable regulatory capital requirements of the Basel III Rule could result in one or more of our regulators placing limitations or conditions on our activities, including our growth initiatives, or restricting the commencement of new activities, and could affect customer and investor confidence, our costs of funds and FDIC insurance costs, our ability to pay dividends on our common stock, our ability to make acquisitions, and our business, results of operations and financial conditions, generally. In addition, banking institutions that do not maintain a capital conservation buffer, comprised of Common Equity Tier 1 Capital, of 2.5% above the regulatory minimum capital requirements face constraints on the payment of dividends, stock repurchases and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers based on the amount of the shortfall, unless prior regulatory approval is obtained. Accordingly, if the Bank or the Company fails to maintain the applicable minimum capital ratios and the capital conservation buffer, distributions by the Bank to the Company, or dividends or stock repurchases by the Company, may be prohibited or limited.
Federal and state regulators periodically examine our business, and we may be required to remediate adverse examination findings.
The Federal Reserve, the FDIC and the DFPR periodically examine our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, a banking agency were to determine that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity or other aspects of any of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we were in violation of any law or regulation, they may take a number of different remedial actions as they deem appropriate. These actions include the power to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to restrict our growth, to assess civil money penalties, to fine or remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate our deposit insurance and place us into receivership or conservatorship. Any regulatory action against us could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.
The Bank Secrecy Act, the USA PATRIOT Act and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and to file reports such as suspicious activity reports and currency transaction reports. We are required to comply with these and other anti-money laundering requirements. The federal banking agencies and Financial Crimes Enforcement Network are authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and have recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts against banks and other financial services providers with the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service. We are also subject to increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, including those of our third party vendors,we could be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including our acquisition plans.
Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. Any of these results could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We are subject to numerous laws designed to protect consumers, including the Community Reinvestment Act and fair lending laws, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions.
The CRA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations prohibit discriminatory lending practices by financial institutions. The U.S. Department of Justice, federal banking agencies, and other federal agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. A challenge to an institution’s compliance with fair lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Private parties may also challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
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The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank.
As a matter of policy, the Federal Reserve expects a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to a subsidiary bank and to commit resources to support such subsidiary bank. The Dodd-Frank Act codified the Federal Reserve’s policy on serving as a source of financial strength. Under the “source of strength” doctrine, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank and may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to a subsidiary bank. A capital injection may be required at times when the holding company may not have the resources to provide it and therefore may be required to borrow the funds or raise capital. Any loans by a holding company to its subsidiary banks are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank. In the event of a bank holding company’s bankruptcy, the bankruptcy trustee will assume any commitment by the holding company to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank. Moreover, bankruptcy law provides that claims based on any such commitment will be entitled to a priority of payment over the claims of the institution’s general unsecured creditors, including the holders of its note obligations. Thus, any borrowing that must be done by the Company to make a required capital injection becomes more difficult and expensive and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The financial services industry, as well as the broader economy, may be subject to new legislation, regulation, and government policy.
At this time, it is difficult to predict the legislative and regulatory changes that will result from having a new President of the United States. The new administration and Congress may cause broad economic changes due to changes in governing ideology and governing style. New appointments to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve could affect monetary policy and interest rates, and changes in fiscal policy could affect broader patterns of trade and economic growth. Future legislation, regulation, and government policy could affect the banking industry as a whole, including our business and results of operations, in ways that are difficult to predict. In addition, our results of operations also could be adversely affected by changes in the way in which existing statutes and regulations are interpreted or applied by courts and government agencies.
Market and Interest Rate Risks
Monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition to being affected by general economic conditions, our earnings, capital ratios and growth are affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve. In the past year, the Federal Reserve has significantly increased the target Federal Funds rate as part of its efforts to decrease inflation, which has helped drive a significant increase in prevailing interest rates. The elevated interest rate environment is expected to continue. While this helped increase our net interest income, it has also harmed the value of our securities portfolio, which had $99.9 million in unrealized losses at December 31, 2023, and which has negatively affected our tangible book value. Future actions of the Federal Reserve could continue to have negative effects on our business, by decreasing loan demand, increasing our costs of deposits and other sources of funding, further harming the value of our securities portfolio, and negatively impacting the earnings of our wealth management business. Higher interest rates can also negatively affect our customers’ businesses and financial condition, and the value of collateral securing loans in our portfolio.
Fluctuations in interest rates may reduce net interest income and otherwise negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Shifts in short-term interest rates may reduce net interest income, which is the principal component of our earnings. Net interest income is the difference between the amounts received by us on our interest-earning assets and the interest paid by us on our interest-bearing liabilities. When interest rates rise, the rate of interest we pay on our liabilities, such as deposits, generally rises more quickly than the rate of interest that we receive on our interest-bearing assets, such as loans, which may cause our profits to decrease. The impact on earnings is more adverse when the slope of the yield curve flattens, that is, when short-term interest rates increase more than long-term interest rates or when long-term interest rates decrease more than short-term interest rates.
Interest rate increases often result in larger payment requirements for our borrowers, which increases the potential for default. At the same time, the marketability of the underlying property may be adversely affected by any reduced demand resulting from higher interest rates. In a declining interest rate environment, there may be an increase in prepayments on loans as borrowers refinance their mortgages and other indebtedness at lower rates.
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Changes in interest rates also can affect the value of loans, securities and other assets. An increase in interest rates that adversely affects the ability of borrowers to pay the principal or interest on loans, or that adversely affects the value of collateral securing those loans, may lead to an increase in nonperforming assets and a reduction of income recognized, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. Further, when we place a loan on nonaccrual status, we reverse any accrued but unpaid interest receivable, which decreases interest income. Subsequently, we continue to have a cost to fund the loan, which is reflected as interest expense, without any interest income to offset the associated funding expense. Thus, an increase in the amount of nonperforming assets would have an adverse impact on net interest income.
If short-term interest rates remain at low levels for a prolonged period, and assuming longer term interest rates fall, we could experience net interest margin compression as our interest earning assets would continue to reprice downward while our interest-bearing liability rates could fail to decline in tandem. This would have a material adverse effect on our net interest income and our results of operations.
We could recognize losses on securities held in our securities portfolio, particularly if interest rates continue to increase or economic and market conditions deteriorate.
Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. For example, fixed-rate securities acquired by us are generally subject to decreases in market value when interest rates rise, which we expect to continue in 2024. Additional factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency downgrades of the securities or our own analysis of the value of the security, defaults by the issuer or individual mortgagors with respect to the underlying securities, and continued instability in the credit markets. Any of the foregoing factors could cause an other-than-temporary impairment in future periods and result in realized losses. The process for determining whether impairment is other-than-temporary usually requires difficult, subjective judgments about the future financial performance of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Because of changing economic and market conditions affecting interest rates, the financial condition of issuers of the securities and the performance of the underlying collateral, we may recognize realized and/or unrealized losses in future periods, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Downgrades in the credit rating of one or more insurers that provide credit enhancement for our state and municipal securities portfolio may have an adverse impact on the market for and valuation of these types of securities.
We invest in tax-exempt state and local municipal securities, some of which are insured by monoline insurers. Even though management generally purchases municipal securities on the overall credit strength of the issuer, the reduction in the credit rating of an insurer may negatively impact the market for and valuation of our investment securities. Such downgrade could adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
Our mortgage banking profitability could significantly decline if we are not able to originate and resell a high volume of mortgage loans.
Mortgage production, especially refinancing activity, declines in rising interest rate environments, and in a rising interest rate environment, there can be no assurance that our mortgage production will continue at historical levels. Because we sell a substantial portion of the mortgage loans we originate, the profitability of our mortgage banking business also depends in large part on our ability to aggregate a high volume of loans and sell them in the secondary market at a gain. Thus, in addition to our dependence on the interest rate environment, we are dependent upon (i) the existence of an active secondary market and (ii) our ability to profitably sell loans or securities into that market. If our level of mortgage production declines, the profitability will depend upon our ability to reduce our costs commensurate with the reduction of revenue from our mortgage operations.
Liquidity and Funding Risks
Liquidity risks could affect operations and jeopardize our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans and/or investment securities and from other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our most important source of funds consists of our customer deposits, including escrow deposits held in connection with our commercial mortgage servicing business. Such deposit balances can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, as providing a better risk/return tradeoff, or, in connection with our commercial mortgage servicing business, third parties for whom we provide servicing choose to terminate that relationship with us. If customers move money out of bank deposits and into other investments, we could lose a relatively low cost source of funds, which would require us to seek
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wholesale funding alternatives in order to continue to grow, thereby increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income.
Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities or on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us directly or the financial services industry or economy in general, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry.
Any decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to continue to implement our strategic plan, including originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses, pay dividends to our shareholders or to fulfill obligations such as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity, business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and if we fail to maintain sufficient capital, whether due to losses, an inability to raise additional capital or otherwise, our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations, as well as our ability to maintain regulatory compliance, would be adversely affected.
We face significant capital and other regulatory requirements as a financial institution. The Company, on a consolidated basis, and the Bank, on a stand-alone basis, must meet certain regulatory capital requirements and maintain sufficient liquidity. Importantly, regulatory capital requirements could increase from current levels, which could require us to raise additional capital or contract our operations. Our ability to raise additional capital depends on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions and a number of other factors, including investor perceptions regarding the banking industry, market conditions and governmental activities, and on our financial condition and performance. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will be able to raise additional capital if needed or on terms acceptable to us. If we fail to maintain capital to meet regulatory requirements, our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.
We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions and the perceived strength of our Bank could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other institutional clients. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services companies, or the financial services industry generally, have led to market-wide liquidity problems and deposit volatility, and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. These issues could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. Additionally, if our competitors were extending credit on terms we found to pose excessive risks, or at interest rates which we believed did not warrant the credit exposure, we may not be able to maintain our business volume and could experience deteriorating financial performance.
ITEM 1B – UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C – CYBERSECURITY
We rely extensively on various information systems and other electronic resources to operate our business. In addition, nearly all of our customers, service providers and other business partners on whom we depend, including the providers of our online banking, mobile banking and accounting systems, use these systems and their own electronic information systems. Any of these systems can be compromised, including through the intentional acts or carelessness by employees, customers and other individuals who are authorized to use them, and by criminals, who often use sophisticated and constantly evolving set of software, tools and strategies to do so. The nature of our business, as a financial services provider, and our relative size, make us and our business partners high-value targets for these bad actors to pursue, and any intrusion into our systems could result in material financial losses and operational problems. See “Operational, Strategic and Reputational Risks.”
Accordingly, we have developed an informational security program and devoted resources for assessing, identifying and managing risks associated with cybersecurity threats, including:
established a dedicated internal cybersecurity team that is responsible for conducting regular assessments of our information systems, existing controls, vulnerabilities and potential improvements;
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implemented continuous monitoring tools and a third-party Security Operations Center that can detect and respond to cybersecurity threats in real-time;
perform ongoing due diligence with respect to our third-party service providers, including their cybersecurity practices, and requiring contractual commitments from our service providers to take certain measures to mitigate their cybersecurity risk;
retain third-party cybersecurity consultants who conduct periodic penetration testing, vulnerability assessments and other procedures to identify potential weaknesses in our systems and processes;
conduct frequent cybersecurity training and testing for our workforce;
provide our board of directors with regular updates regarding threat levels, including analyses that demonstrate the overall cybersecurity posture and health of the organization;
engage in periodic assessments of our cyber resilience with the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA);
conduct scheduled reviews of our Incident Response Plan to assess the responsiveness during a cybersecurity event or Ransomware attack; and
maintain third party vendor management program, which includes requirements for how our partners transmit, store and use bank information.
This information security program is a key part of our overall risk management system, which is administered by our Chief Risk Officer and Chief Information Security Officer. The program includes administrative, technical and physical safeguards to help ensure the security, integrity and confidentiality of customer records and information, and prohibit unauthorized access to our critical operating systems. These security and privacy policies and procedures are in effect across all of our businesses and geographic locations.
From time-to-time, we have identified cybersecurity threats and cybersecurity incidents, including with respect to our commercial customers and vendors, that require us to make changes to our processes and implement additional safeguards. While none of these identified threats or incidents have materially affected us, it is possible that future threats and incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business strategy, results of operations and financial condition, even if the threat or incident is promptly identified and countermeasures are implemented. Such events could lead to direct financial loss or require the expenditure of significant amounts to obtain the release of critical data and/or restore our operating systems or those of our customers and/or vendors if the incident was the result of a security breach for which we are held legally responsible.
Our management team is responsible for the day-to-day management of risks we face, including our Chief Information Security Officer. Our Chief Information Security Officer has 20 years of information technology and information security experience, and before joining our Company has held the positions of Chief Technology Officer and Director of IT and Information Security Officer at his prior places of employment.
In addition, our board of directors, as a whole and through its Risk Policy & Compliance Committee (the “Risk Committee”), is responsible for the oversight of risk management. In that role, our board of directors and Risk Committee, with support from the Company’s cybersecurity advisors, are responsible for ensuring that the risk management processes designed and implemented by management are adequate and functioning as designed. To carry out those duties, both our board of directors and the Risk Committee receive quarterly reports from our management team, including from our Chief Risk Officer and our Chief Information Security Officer regarding cybersecurity risks, and the Company’s efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate and remediate any cybersecurity incidents.
ITEM 2 – PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters office building is located at 1201 Network Centre Drive, Effingham, Illinois 62401. We own our corporate headquarters office building, which was built in 2011 and also houses our primary operations center. We have additional operations centers located in St. Louis, Missouri and Rockford, Illinois, supporting our banking and wealth management businesses. At December 31, 2023, the Bank operated a total of 53 full-service banking centers, including 42 located in Illinois and 11 located in the St. Louis metropolitan area. Of these facilities, 42 were owned, and we leased 11 from unaffiliated third parties.
We believe that the leases to which we are subject are generally on terms consistent with prevailing market terms. None of the leases are with our directors, officers, beneficial owners of more than 5% of our voting securities or any affiliates
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of the foregoing. We believe that our facilities are in good condition and are adequate to meet our operating needs for the foreseeable future.
ITEM 3 – LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the normal course of business, we are named or threatened to be named as a defendant in various lawsuits, none of which we expect to have a material effect on the Company. However, given the nature, scope and complexity of the extensive legal and regulatory landscape applicable to our business (including laws and regulations governing consumer protection, fair lending, fair labor, privacy, information security, anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism), we, like all banking organizations, are subject to heightened legal and regulatory compliance and litigation risk. There are no material pending legal proceedings to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any of their property is the subject.
ITEM 4 – MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5 – MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Shareholders
As of February 13, 2024, the Company had 1,080 common stock shareholders of record, and the closing price of the Company’s common stock, traded on the Nasdaq under the ticker symbol MSBI, was $24.09 per share.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the Company's five year cumulative shareholder returns with the Nasdaq Composite Index and the S&P U.S. Small Cap Banks Index. The graph assumes an investment of $100.00 in the Company's common stock and each index on December 31, 2018 and reinvestment of all quarterly dividends. Measurement points are the last trading day of the second quarter and fourth quarter of each subsequent year through December 31, 2023. There is no assurance that the Company's common stock performance will continue in the future with the same or similar results as shown in the graph.
https://cdn.kscope.io/cdf5192bcb00ffca51d2336196ae43ec-MSBI Stock Graph.jpg
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth information regarding the Company’s repurchase of shares of its outstanding common stock during the fourth quarter of 2023.
Period
Total
Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
Average
Price
Paid Per
Share
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares That May
Yet be Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs (2)
October 1 - 31, 2023102,787 $20.75 102,787 $7,963,225 
November 1 - 30, 202354,370 22.22 32,898 7,231,999 
December 1 - 31, 2023— — — 25,000,000 
Total157,157 $21.26 135,685 $25,000,000 
(1)Represents shares of the Company’s common stock repurchased under the employee stock purchase program and shares withheld to satisfy tax withholding obligations upon the vesting of awards of restricted stock.
(2)As previously disclosed, the board of directors of the Company approved a new stock repurchase program on December 5, 2023, pursuant to which the Company is authorized to repurchase up to $25.0 million of common stock through December 31, 2024. The new stock repurchase program became effective on January 1, 2024. Stock repurchases under this programs may be made from time to time on the open market, in privately negotiated transactions, or in any manner that complies with applicable securities laws, at the discretion of the Company. The timing of purchases and the number of shares repurchased under the programs are dependent upon a variety of factors including price, trading volume, corporate and regulatory requirements and market condition. The repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued at any time without notice. The Company’s previous stock repurchase program expired on December 31, 2023.


Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
None.
ITEM 6 – [RESERVED]


ITEM 7 – MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto, included in Item 8 - "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data", and other financial data appearing elsewhere in this report. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Certain risks, uncertainties and other factors, including but not limited to those set forth under “Safe Harbor Statement Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995,” Item 1A – "Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report, may cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements. Readers of our Annual Report on Form 10-K should therefore consider these risks and uncertainties in evaluating forward-looking statements and should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.
Overview
Midland States Bancorp, Inc. is a diversified financial holding company headquartered in Effingham, Illinois. Its wholly-owned banking subsidiary, Midland States Bank, has branches across Illinois and in Missouri, and provides a full range of commercial and consumer banking products and services, business equipment financing, merchant credit card services, and trust and investment management services and insurance and financial planning services. As of December 31, 2023, we had assets of $7.87 billion, deposits of $6.31 billion and shareholders’ equity of $791.9 million.
Our strategic plan is focused on building a performance-based, customer-centric culture, creating revenue diversification, seeking accretive acquisitions, achieving operational excellence and maintaining a robust enterprise-wide risk management program. Over the past several years, we have grown organically and through a series of acquisitions, with an over-arching focus on enhancing shareholder value and building a platform for scalability.
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Our principal lines of business include traditional community banking and wealth management. Our traditional community banking business primarily consists of commercial and retail lending and deposit taking. Our wealth management group provides a comprehensive suite of trust and wealth management products and services, and had $3.73 billion of assets under administration as of December 31, 2023.
Our principal business activity has been lending to and accepting deposits from individuals, businesses, municipalities and other entities. We have derived income principally from interest charged on loans and leases and, to a lesser extent, from interest and dividends earned on investment securities. We have also derived income from noninterest sources, such as: fees received in connection with various lending and deposit services; wealth management services; commercial FHA mortgage loan servicing; residential mortgage loan originations and sales; and, from time to time, gains on sales of assets. Our principal expenses include interest expense on deposits and borrowings, operating expenses, such as salaries and employee benefits, occupancy and equipment expenses, data processing costs, professional fees and other noninterest expenses, provisions for credit losses and income tax expense.
Material Trends and Developments
Community Banking. We believe the most important trends affecting community banks in the United States over the foreseeable future will be related to heightened regulatory capital requirements, increasing regulatory burdens generally, including the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act and the regulations promulgated and to be promulgated thereunder, and net interest margin compression. We expect that community banks will face increased competition for lower cost capital as a result of regulatory policies that may offer larger financial institutions greater access to government assistance than is available for smaller institutions, including community banks. We expect that troubled community banks will continue to face significant challenges when attempting to raise capital. We also believe that heightened regulatory capital requirements will make it more difficult for even well-capitalized, healthy community banks to grow in their communities. We believe these trends will favor community banks that have sufficient capital, a diversified business model and a strong deposit franchise, and we believe we possess these characteristics.
We also believe that increased regulatory burdens will have a significant adverse effect on smaller community banks, which often lack the personnel, experience and technology to efficiently comply with new regulations in a variety of areas in the banking industry, including in the areas of deposits, lending, compensation, information security and overdraft protection. We believe the increased costs to smaller community banks from a more complex regulatory environment, coupled with challenges in the real estate lending area, present attractive acquisition opportunities for larger community banks that have already made significant investments in regulatory compliance and risk management and can acquire and quickly integrate these smaller institutions into their existing platform. Furthermore, we believe that, as a result of our significant operational investments and our experience acquiring other institutions and quickly integrating them into our organization, we are well positioned to capitalize on the challenges facing smaller community banks.
We continue to believe we have significant opportunities for further growth through additional acquisitions of banks, branches, wealth management firms and trust departments of community banks, selective de novo opportunities, continued expansion of our wealth management operations, the hiring of commercial banking and wealth management professionals from other organizations and organic growth within our existing branch network. We also believe we have the necessary experience, management and infrastructure to take advantage of these growth opportunities.
Credit Reserves. One of our key operating objectives has been, and continues to be, maintenance of an appropriate level of reserve protection against estimated losses in our loan portfolio. Our allowance for credit losses on loans totaled $68.5 million, or 1.12% of total loans, and $61.1 million, or 0.97% of total loans, at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Regulatory Environment. As a result of regulatory changes, including the Dodd-Frank Act and the Basel III Rule, we expect to be subject to more restrictive capital requirements, more stringent asset concentration and growth limitations and new and potentially heightened examination and reporting requirements. We also expect to face a more challenging environment for customer loan demand due to the increased costs that could be ultimately borne by borrowers, and to incur higher costs to comply with these new regulations. This uncertain regulatory environment could have a detrimental impact on our ability to manage our business consistent with historical practices and cause difficulty in executing our growth plan. See Item 1A - "Risk Factors—Legal, Accounting and Compliance Risks” and Item 1 - "Business—Supervision and Regulation.”


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Additional Factors Affecting Comparability
Each factor listed below affects the comparability of our results of operations and financial condition in 2023 and 2022, and may affect the comparability of financial information we report in future fiscal periods.
Balance Sheet Repositioning. In 2023, the Company took advantage of certain market conditions to reposition out of lower yielding securities into other structures, which are expected to result in improved overall margin, liquidity and capital allocations. These transactions resulted in losses of $9.4 million.
In addition, in the third quarter of 2023, the Company surrendered certain low-yielding life insurance policies and purchased additional policies. The Company recognized a $4.5 million tax charge related to the surrender of the policies.
Redemption of Subordinated Notes. In the second quarter of 2023, the Company redeemed $6.6 million of outstanding subordinated notes. The weighted average redemption price was 89.2% of the aggregate principal amount of the subordinated notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest. The Company recorded gains totaling $0.7 million on these redemptions.
On October 15, 2022, the Company redeemed the outstanding Fixed-to-Floating Rate Subordinated Notes due October 15, 2027, having an aggregate principal amount of $40.0 million, in accordance with the terms of the notes. The aggregate redemption price was 100% of the aggregate principal amount of the subordinated notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest.
Preferred Stock Issuance. On August 24, 2022, the Company issued and sold 4,600,000 depositary shares, each representing a 1/40th ownership interest in a share of the Company’s 7.75% fixed rate reset non-cumulative, non-convertible, perpetual preferred stock, Series A. The net proceeds were $110.5 million.
Commercial FHA Mortgage Loan Servicing Rights. During the third quarter of 2022, we committed to a plan to sell the commercial servicing rights asset and transferred $24.0 million of commercial FHA loan servicing rights to held for sale. At June 30, 2023, the Company abandoned its plans to sell this servicing asset and removed this asset from held for sale at lower of cost or fair value with no gain or loss recognized.
Termination of Hedged Interest Rate Swaps. On October 24, 2022, the Company terminated the $140.0 million notional amount of future starting pay-fixed, receive-variable interest rate swaps on certain FHLB or other fixed-rate advances. The Company realized a $17.5 million net gain upon termination.
Recent Acquisitions. On June 17, 2022, the Company completed its acquisition of the deposits and certain loans and other assets associated with FNBC's branches in Mokena and Yorkville, Illinois. The Company acquired $79.8 million in assets, including $60.3 million in cash and $16.6 million in loans, and assumed $79.8 million in deposits.


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Results of Operations
Overview. The following table sets forth condensed income statement information of the Company for the years ended 2023, 2022, and 2021:
Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)202320222021
Income Statement Data:
Interest income$404,296 $301,755 $237,817 
Interest expense168,279 56,020 30,142 
Net interest income236,017 245,735 207,675 
Provision for credit losses21,132 20,126 3,393 
Noninterest income66,590 79,891 69,899 
Noninterest expense173,902 175,662 175,069 
Income before income taxes107,573 129,838 99,112 
Income taxes32,113 30,813 17,795 
Net income75,460 99,025 81,317 
Preferred dividends8,913 3,169 — 
Net income available to common shareholders$66,547 $95,856 $81,317 
Per Share Data:
Basic earnings per common share$2.97 $4.24 $3.58 
Diluted earnings per common share2.97 4.23 3.57 
Performance Metrics:
Return on average assets0.95 %1.31 %1.18 %
Return on average shareholders' equity9.80 %14.40 %12.65 %
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we generated net income of $75.5 million, or diluted earnings per common share of $2.97, compared to net income of $99.0 million, or diluted earnings per common share of $4.23, in the year ended December 31, 2022. Earnings for 2023 compared to 2022 decreased primarily due to a $9.7 million decrease in net interest income, a $1.0 million increase in provision for credit losses, a $13.3 million decrease in noninterest income, and a $1.3 million increase in income tax expense. These results were partially offset by a $1.8 million decrease in noninterest expense.
Net Interest Income and Margin. Our primary source of revenue is net interest income, which is the difference between interest income from interest-earning assets (primarily loans and securities) and interest expense of funding sources (primarily interest-bearing deposits and borrowings). Net interest income is influenced by many factors, primarily the volume and mix of interest-earning assets, funding sources, and interest rate fluctuations. Noninterest-bearing sources of funds, such as demand deposits and shareholders’ equity, also support earning assets. Net interest margin is calculated as net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets. Net interest margin is presented on a tax-equivalent basis, which means that tax-free interest income has been adjusted to a pretax-equivalent income, assuming a federal income tax rate of 21% for 2023 and 2022.
The Federal Reserve left interest rates unchanged at its meeting in December 2023 but signaled that it was no longer expecting further interest rate increases in its historic inflation fight, and that it could also cut interest rates three times in 2024. In 2023, the Federal Reserve increased the federal funds rate 100 basis points to a target range of 5.25%-5.50%, the highest since August 2007. This compares to rate increases totaling 425 basis points in 2022. The benchmark federal funds rate remains at a target range between 5.25%-5.50%, compared to a target range of 0.00%-0.25% at the beginning of 2022.
In 2023, net interest income, on a tax-equivalent basis, decreased to $236.8 million with a tax-equivalent net interest margin of 3.26% compared to net interest income, on a tax-equivalent basis, of $247.0 million and a tax-equivalent net interest margin of 3.57% in 2022.


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Average Balance Sheet, Interest and Yield/Rate Analysis. The following table presents average balance sheet information, interest income, interest expense and the corresponding average yields earned and rates paid for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. The average balances are principally daily averages and, for loans, include both performing and nonperforming balances. Interest income on loans includes the effects of discount accretion and net deferred loan origination costs accounted for as yield adjustments.
Years Ended December 31,
202320222021
(tax-equivalent basis, dollars in thousands)Average
Balance
Interest
& Fees
Yield/
Rate
Average
Balance
Interest
& Fees
Yield/
Rate
Average
Balance
Interest
& Fees
Yield /
Rate
Interest-earning assets:
Federal funds sold and cash investments$77,046 $3,922 5.09 %$256,221 $3,907 1.52 %$518,804 $728 0.14 %
Investment securities:
Taxable investment securities798,579 28,653 3.59 694,269 15,801 2.28 646,079 13,898 2.15 
Investment securities exempt from federal income tax (1)
55,997 1,708 3.05 104,949 3,476 3.31 130,495 4,222 3.24 
Total securities854,576 30,361 3.55 799,218 19,277 2.41 776,574 18,120 2.33 
Loans:
Loans (2)
6,238,970 365,529 5.86 5,743,525 274,617 4.78 4,821,718 213,922 4.44 
Loans exempt from federal income tax (1)
53,290 2,233 4.19 67,878 2,635 3.88 81,730 3,127 3.38 
Total loans6,292,260 367,762 5.84 5,811,403 277,252 4.77 4,903,448 217,049 4.43 
Loans held for sale4,034 260 6.45 12,669 404 3.19 37,638 1,115 2.96 
Nonmarketable equity securities43,318 2,819 6.51 38,543 2,198 5.70 47,045 2,348 4.99 
Total earning assets7,271,234 405,124 5.57 %6,918,054 303,038 4.38 %6,283,509 239,360 3.81 %
Noninterest-earning assets635,490 618,593 598,083 
Total assets$7,906,724 $7,536,647 $6,881,592 
Interest-bearing liabilities:
Checking and money market deposits$3,738,818 $109,831 2.94 %$3,456,890 $31,156 0.90 %$2,467,288 $3,020 0.12 %
Savings deposits612,243 1,632 0.27 703,341 540 0.08 655,735 164 0.02 
Time deposits814,727 21,840 2.68 625,307 4,161 0.67 690,558 7,373 1.07 
Brokered time deposits75,935 3,644 4.80 16,592 204 1.23 32,419 400 1.23 
Total interest-bearing deposits5,241,723 136,947 2.61 4,802,130